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Despite their differences, theories of the gaze reject the idea that perception is ever merely passive reception. All of these approaches assume that vision possesses power: power to objectify—to subject the object of vision to scrutiny and possession. The male gaze has been a theoretical tool of inestimable value in calling attention to the fact that looking is rarely a neutral operation of the visual sense.

As Naomi Scheman states:. Theories of the gaze stress the activity of vision, its mastery and control of the aesthetic object. These theories reject the separation of desire from pleasure, reinstating into the core of beauty the sort of erotic, covetous gaze that was eliminated from aesthetic disinterestedness.

While not all art invites understanding in terms of the gaze, much does; perhaps nowhere is the ideology of extreme disinterested contemplation more questionable than when applied to paintings of female nudes, which one feminist scholar argues virtually define the modern fine art of painting Nead Aesthetic ideologies that would remove art from its relations with the world disguise its ability to inscribe and to reinforce power relations. The erotic in art is one of those relations, and denying its presence disguises both its persuasive sway and its aesthetic force Eaton With visual art, those relations are manifest in vision itself: the way it is depicted in a work and the way it is directed in the observer outside the work.

Becoming attuned to the prescribed viewing-position of a work of visual art brings desire and suppressed heteroeroticism into focus and illuminates other presumptions about the ideal audience for art, such as sexual identity and race Robinson ; Roelofs , Depictions of the body in art can be continuous with pornographic representations, another area of feminist investigations Maes and Levinson ; Eaton ; Kania ; Lavalee All of these critical investigations can be ordered into a sustained critique of aesthetic values, in particular, of beauty.

Of all the concepts within aesthetics, for feminist consideration there is none so central, so contested, so rejected, and so embraced as beauty. Beauty is an enormous category of value, for so many disparate things are beautiful that generalizing about its nature is a formidable challenge. Beauty is among the oldest of philosophical value concepts, with Plato numbering among its formative theorists. Plato focused on beauty as an abstract form whose essence is bestowed on the particular items that instantiate it, and in keeping with this foundational model, philosophers have usually treated beauty in the most general of terms.

Combined with the modern notion of disinterested attention, this approach to aesthetic value seems to aim at the highest level of universality of appreciation. Yet at the same time, as noted above, one of the central exemplars of beauty has been the young, pretty, pale-skinned female body, which exerts erotic attraction and promises satisfaction of physical desire.

Critiques of the gender-inflection in supposedly neutral theories, as well as its racialized implications, numbered among the early feminist revisions in aesthetics. These theoretical efforts merged with social critiques of beauty norms that circulated in the late twentieth century. What is more, for some time, beauty was rather sidelined in the art world as well Danto As a result, beauty fell out of favor, and for quite a while one could find little original work published on the subject. All that began to change around , and since the turn of the last millennium there has been a veritable explosion of interest in beauty among philosophers, artists, critics, and cultural theorists--feminists among them Brand Such standards govern not only artistic depictions, but also the way that real people shape and reshape their own bodies to conform to reigning standards of attractiveness Devereaux ; Wegenstein , Feminists and critical race theorists have been especially mindful of diversity and suspicious of general norms and the harms that they can occasion.

Yet at the same time feminists have recognized the pull of pleasure and the importance of beauty in life as well as art. Similar recognition of the potentials for both danger and pleasure in beauty is found in investigations that seek to decenter notions of beauty with reference to race, indigenous people, and subaltern cultures e.

Brand , and in Felski Nor is this a theoretical effort alone; artists are major participants in the reclamation of beauty that takes as many forms as humanity offers. The upshot of this work is not to reinstate beauty back on its abstract pedestal, but to retain its pleasures while being alert to its dangers.

The functions of beauty include the seductions of advertising, a pervasive social phenomenon that reinforces and manipulates ideals of femininity and thus represents another important target for feminist examinations Michna Feminist analyses of aesthetic practices of the past have influenced the production of feminist art of our own times, and the latter in turn has contributed to a dramatic alteration of the climate of the art world.

The changes that have beset the worlds of art in the twentieth century, perhaps most dramatically in the fields of the visual arts, are frequently the subject of philosophical discussions in the analytic tradition regarding the possibility of defining art Danto ; Davies ; Carroll One challenge to defining art stems from the fact that contemporary artists frequently create with the intention of questioning, undermining, or rejecting values that defined art of the past.

The early and mid-twentieth century extravagances of Dada and Pop Art are most often the target of philosophical inquiries, which seek to discover commonalities among artworks that have few to no perceptible defining similarities. However, the dissolution of the values of fine art long preceded the art scene that feminists entered in the s. In spite of sweeping changes in the concepts of art and its purposes that characterize much art of the last century, the numbers of women practitioners in arts such as painting, sculpture, and music remained small.

The anti-art and avant garde movements so frequently discussed by contemporary analytic philosophers were just as male-dominated as classical music or Renaissance sculpture. Therefore, feminist art practices began as activist movements such as the Guerrilla Girls of New York City to secure women more visibility and recognition in the artworld.

Feminist artists not only demanded that their work be taken seriously, they mounted a critique of the traditional thinking that lay behind their exclusions from the powerful centers of culture. For these reasons, feminist art itself also furnishes numerous examples that subvert older models of fine art, but with added layers of meaning that distinguish it from earlier iconoclastic movements. Because of the gendered significance of the major concepts of the aesthetic tradition, feminist challenges often systematically deconstruct the concepts of art and aesthetic value reviewed above.

Feminist art has joined—and sometimes has led—movements within the artworld that perplex, astound, offend, and exasperate, reversing virtually all the aesthetic values of earlier times. By the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries, the energies of feminist and postfeminist artists of diverse racial and national backgrounds have made the presence of women in the contemporary artworld today powerful and dramatic. The photographic art of Cindy Sherman is a case in point. In brief, feminist artists share a political sense of the historic social subordination of women and an awareness of how art practices have perpetuated that subordination—which is why the history of aesthetics illuminates their work.

The more politically-minded artists, especially those who participated in the feminist movement of the s, often turned their art to the goals of freeing women from the oppressions of male-dominated culture. Examples of such work include the Los Angeles anti-rape performance project of Suzanne Lacy and Leslie Leibowitz, In Mourning and in Rage and Womanhouse , a collaboration of twenty-four artists. Feminist artists opened up previously taboo subjects such as menstruation and childbirth for artistic presentation, and they began to employ female body images widely in their work.

All of these moves were controversial, including within the feminist community. Critics objected that she was both essentializing women and reducing them to their reproductive parts; admirers praised her transgressive boldness. Since that time, the increasing numbers of artistic portrayals of the famale body and its cycles has rendered these subjects less taboo and transgressive, although they remain provocative and sometimes disturbing. Postfeminist artists build upon the efforts of their predecessors in exploring the body, gender, and sexual identity.

Postfeminist art, often highly theoretical and deeply serious, also tends to be playful and parodic in style; it is less overtly political than the art of earlier feminists. Influenced by postmodern speculations that gender, sexuality, and the body itself are creations of culture that are malleable and performative, postfeminist art confounds and disrupts notions of stable identity Grosz ; Butler , Such art can be seen as individualistic compared to the social agendas of earlier feminism, but perhaps for this reason this sort of art is also more attuned to differences among women.

These presentations of the female body tend to draw attention to the position it has in culture: not only the sexed body, but also bodies marked by racial and cultural differences James All of this activity is theoretically charged and often philosophically motivated Reckitt , Heartney And as time passes and political climates shift, the interventions of artists and their visionary critiques alter accordingly.

All these subjects link gender analysis to the history of philosophical concepts, both in the west which most of this entry has emphasized and in eastern traditions Man , Both the artistic and the theoretical modes of exploration of the body can be viewed as complementary elements of feminist aesthetics. To begin with the last topic mentioned above: Both artists and philosophers have reevaluated the senses and the orthodox materials that are fashioned into objects of art. Vision and hearing are the aesthetic senses proper, according to traditional theory.

This judgment is under question now, as the senses themselves are under reevaluation Howes Early speculation about the possible gendering of sense experience was ventured by theorists such as Irigaray and Cixous, and a number of artists indirectly probe the issue by employing foodstuffs as the medium for their works Korsmeyer , chs. The presence of actual food—as opposed to the depictions of still life painting—in art installations confounds traditional aesthetic ideals on a number of fronts.

It challenges the idea that art has lasting value, because it literally decays. And while such art is to be viewed, it synaesthetically teases the senses of taste and smell as well. But it often does so without the benefits that actual eating provides, for art made from food is not necessarily itself a meal. In fact, rather than pleasing to the sense of taste, this art frequently trades on the arousal of disgust in the sensuous imagination.

Janine Antoni, for example, has fashioned large sculptures from lard and from chocolate, employing her mouth, teeth, and tongue as the carving tools. Hardly appealing to the gustatory sense, this work nonetheless arouses a somatic response at the same time that it invites rumination on the venerable hierarchy of the senses that puts the distance senses of sight and hearing above the bodily senses of touch, smell, and taste.

A number of artists today are using food that can be eaten, inviting the public into a participatory relationship with their works Smith The uses of food on the part of female artists are particularly significant, given the traditional association of women with the body, with feeding and nurturance, and with transience and mortality.

The very presence of such creations in the artworld today has contributed to consternation on the part of professionals and public alike about just how art is to be defined and conceived. Erotic desires, sexuality, and bodily sensation in general are increasingly central elements both of art and of aesthetic discourse, and feminist investigators have been among the important contributors to this movement Lintott ; Grosz ; Lintott and Irvin Critical consideration of norms of female beauty and the artistic depiction of women influences the ways that feminist artists employ their own bodies in creating art Brand , ; Steiner The work of artists across the globe utilizes bodies in different cultural and political contexts, dramatizing the recognition prevalent in contemporary feminist theory that there is no such thing as the female body, only bodies marked by the differences of their historical situation, their geographical location, their social position, their race Hobson ; Tate ; Roelofs et al ; Taylor A wide spectrum of identities and desires are explored in text, image, and performance, including sexual morphology--transgendered, female, male, intersexed.

Revaluation of bodies with abilities and disabilities represent yet another way in which aesthetic investigations have political impact Silvers ; Millett-Gallant ; Siebers Of course, both men and women artists sometimes display their bodies in their art; with the female performer, however, there is a particularly deep invocation of conceptual tradition. A good deal of performance art has been highly controversial, partly because of the exposure of the bodies of the artists in ways that not only challenge norms of female beauty but are deliberately gross or even borderline pornographic.

The art tradition was long accustomed to pictures of nude females arranged in alluring poses. A performance artist who manipulates her body in ways that reverse the values of that tradition confronts the audience with a direct and emotionally difficult challenge to those values.

I. The Construction of the Category ‘Woman’

Karen Finley, to mention a well-known case, called attention to the sexual exploitation of women by smearing her body with foodstuffs resembling blood and excrement. This is an especially political use of disgust—an emotion that in earlier times was explicitly precluded from aesthetic arousal but that has become a major feature of the comprehension and appreciation of contemporary art Korsmeyer What at first disgusts, however, may come to lose its stigma, and displays of the body are also deployed to induce acceptance. Feminist explorations of embodiment and the deliberate arousal of disgust as an aesthetic response have at least two kinds of political and philosophical import.

First of all, they invert feminine ideals that frame restrictive norms for personal appearance. This can be done humorously, boldly, sadly, aggressively, casually; much depends on the individual work. There are numerous ways to challenge the traditional aesthetic values expected in the female body, with disturbing emotional effects that make the audience question those values and their comprehensiveness.

In addition, the arousal of disgust often occurs when artists move from consideration of the exterior of the body to its warm, dark, sticky interior where unmentionable substances are kept hidden away. The deliberate cultivation of that which is not pretty but is grossly material is the occasion for presenting formerly taboo aspects of bodies: menstrual blood, excrement, internal organs. Female artists are not the only ones who explore interiority and materiality in art, of course.

This is a complex and delicate territory for feminist investigation: the ancient category of the feminine that includes the element of untamed nature and the gross matter of existence. Feminist uses of these types of objects play upon myths of nature and culture, of horror and sublimity, and of death and life.

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Rather than keeping these themes in the uncanny but clean realms of myth, however, the presentation of entrails, blood, and—sometimes literally—flesh confronts the audience with a particular and disturbing presence of the artist herself. Indeed, such theorizing extends beyond art into lived reality with philosophical attention to such intrinsicaly female events as childbirth, a transformative experience in which some theorists find elements of the sublime Lintott While the intricacies of her philosophy are opaque and sometimes difficult to pin down, her suggestive ideas have furnished inspiration for feminists artists from painters such as Nancy Spero to performance artists such as Joanna Frueh.

The psychoanalytic work of Bracha Ettinger concerning subjectivity and gendered consciousness is equally developed in her writings and in her visual art and indeed can be considered as much theory as aesthetic production Ettinger ; Pollock Art and aesthetic qualities are obviously not merely theoretical objects; they are cultural products with considerable authority to frame and to perpetuate social relations and values.

Therefore feminist aesthetics contains a component where theories of interpretation are directed to particular works of culture. Such perspectives are poised to illuminate the changes in social institutions that are depicted in popular art forms such as literature and film, revealing the large-scale influence that aspects of the political feminist movement have had over marriage and family relations S.

Ross Feminist interpretive theories include approaches that are both competing and complementary, and they represent some of the same rivalries that are present in contemporary philosophy, broadly construed. Adaptations of psychoanalytic theory have an especially large presence in the interpretation of performance, literature, film and visual arts.

Some feminists employ the discourse of Jacques Lacan, whose concept of the symbolic order has been widely applied to understand the power of patriarchy embedded in cultural forms of every kind Copjec Far from a mere application of a theory to aesthetics, the feminist uses of abjection have explored and enlarged the concept in order to understand not only the psychological development of individuals but also the construction of social and political relations Chanter The uses of psychoanalytic theory in aesthetics mark an area of controversy that is importantly discipline-based.

Many philosophers, especially those of the analytic and postanalytic traditions, reject the assumptions required by these approaches as empirically baseless and theoretically otiose. They argue that empirical, particularist analyses of individual works have more explanatory power to illuminate the positions that gender manifests in art Freeland a, b; Carroll Thus differences over interpretive theory represent divisions both within philosophy itself and in transdisciplinary scholarship.

As is evident from the foregoing discussion, one can find in feminist philosophy avenues of thought that direct inquiry away from the worlds of art and to the presence of aesthetic features in lived experience. Cooking, eating, arranging furniture and shelves, gardening--all these quotidian activities have aesthetic features for gardening see Ross ; Miller Such activities are not always uplifting or even pleasant, but attention to their sensuous character, the rhythm they impose on the day, week, or year, and their place in the patterns of life, disperses aesthetic attention to regions that are relatively new to theory, if widely familiar in experience.

Feminist analyses both contribute to the development of this field of interest and occupy a place within it. For example, there is a growing body of philosophy that explores issues about food and eating, which are topics that hitherto had little to no position in the field at all Korsmeyer This new subject has several sources of development, including feminism, for it can be considered an area of scholarship that has been nurtured by the overall critical questioning of dominant conceptual frameworks in philosophy, including those that overlooked matters relevant to the practical and physical realities of living.

Of special pertinence for topics concerning women and gender in everyday aesthetics is the rise of attention to a subject absent in previous philosophies: pregnancy and motherhood--topics also explored in contemporary feminist and postfeminist art, as noted above Lintott and Sander-Staudt The aesthetics of the body here explores the maternal body, its changes during pregnancy, birth, and nursing, and the everyday demands of parenthood, within and among which feminists have explored the beautiful, the sublime, the novel and unsettling, the comforting and tranquil--as manifest in the events and activities one encounters every day.

The area of inquiry here is not the depiction of these subjects in art or literature, or their dramatization in theater or film, but the aesthetics of the lived experience itself. Raising children has an inevitable sensuousness that provides its own aesthetic dimensions, and sometimes what is off-putting or disgusting to others becomes part of the relationship of mother to child Irvin In such ways are traditional philosophical categories modified and adapted as feminist perspectives continue to probe the dimensions of the aesthetic.

Theories of perception, appreciation, and interpretation have been developed in all of these areas. While much of this thinking began with examination of philosophical tradition and the conceptual frameworks it affords, feminist perspectives have also opened the field in many directions, such that theorizing in the twenty-first century has taken different directions from the critical perspectives that began to probe gender analysis in the s.

Of special note is the diffusion of interests from overtly political and strategic analyses of women in society and culture, to exploration of the variant forms that gender can assume, a shift that also distinguishes aspects of the transition from feminism to postfeminism. A wider attention to issues of diverse identity, particularly attentive to racially inflected differences, characterizes both feminist theory in general and aesthetics today.

Thus feminist work is more and more likely not to focus on women as an exclusive topic but to consider other modes of identity as well.

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And feminists have employed philosophies of divergent stripes in their own quests, elaborating and refining them, and--most importantly--formulating ideas that are independent of any particular theoretical allegiances. The changing emphases of feminist perspectives in aesthetics and philosophy of art over the last four decades are evident in philosophy, art theory, criticism and commentary on the arts, and in the practice of artists themselves, testimony to the degree to which philosophy and cultural production travel hand in hand, which is an abiding characteristic of the field of aesthetics itself.

Art and Artists: Historical Background 2. Creativity and Genius 3. Aesthetic Categories and Feminist Critiques 4. Feminist Practice and the Concept of Art 5. The Body in Art and Philosophy 6. Aesthetics and Everyday Life 7. Art and Artists: Historical Background Feminist perspectives in aesthetics first arose in the s from a combination of political activism in the contemporary art world and critiques of the historical traditions of philosophy and of the arts.

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Creativity and Genius While genius is a rare gift, according to most theorists the pool of human beings from which genius emerges includes only men. As the nineteenth century drew on … the metaphors of male motherhood became commonplace—as did those of male midwifery. The artist conceived, was pregnant, laboured in sweat and pain , was delivered, and in an uncontrolled ecstasy of agonized—male—control brought forth. Battersby Aesthetic Categories and Feminist Critiques The foregoing has reviewed feminist reflections on theories of art, noting how the histories of women in the arts inform contemporary feminist debates and practices.

The presence of a female hero in Prometheus further establishes the narrative within a feminist framework. Feminist science fiction narratives deconstruct 'sex and gender' so that the 'modes of reproduction and parenting are re-envisioned compared to traditional forms' Damarin Prometheus envisages the birth of the alien from a human mother, further disrupting the approach to reproduction and birth. In her afterthoughts on 'Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema' Mulvey puts forth a case for film instances that explore 'a female character occupying the centre of the narrative arena'.

This alters the narrative discourse where woman does not equal sexuality but rather becomes a signifier of sexuality Mulvey Although Shaw experiences the 'unthinkable horror' Bundtzen : the 'impregnation with the alien other' Csicsery-Ronay , she escapes death and takes back her power and agency with the help of technology, accomplishing a feat that Ripley was unable to in the Alien franchise. In Prometheus, Shaw performs her own Caesarean section to evict the alien and save her life.

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The scene is difficult to watch as it creates discomfort through the pain experienced by the protagonist. As a laser sears through her flesh and mechanical, surgical arms remove the alien from her womb see Figure 1. The blood and resultant discomfort may force the male viewer to look away from the woman who is 'signifier for the male other' Mulvey , thus inverting cinema's function to fixate and suture the gaze on the screen.

In the Alien franchise, 'woman's reproductive capacity is a potential threat', not just to herself, but also to 'civilization [and] technological progress' Bundtzen However, in Prometheus the threat of the alien is temporarily overturned when Shaw uses technology to take back her agency from the alien within her. The film projects a preference for birth aided by technology, avoiding the gore and death that accompanies the natural process of birth, explicitly depicted through the 'chest-busters' in the Alien franchise. While painful, the surgery is quick and moderately clean. While Shaw does manage to save the human civilisation from the alien threat, the threat is not completely eradicated due to the fecundity of the Trilobite.

The Trilobite and the female gaze. The Trilobite in Prometheus takes its name from a creature that lived approximately million years ago Levi-Setti , making them the oldest fossil arthropods Levi-Setti The Trilobite possessed remarkable levels of 'functional complexity', displayed through accelerated biological evolution Levi-Setti It is a befitting name for the mother-alien at the centre of Scott's narrative as she possesses the ability to grow to a grotesque size in a short period of time, reproduce with another alien species and bring forth a new species from the union, which also occurs in a short interval of time.

The form of the alien in the popular imaginary is influenced by animals and 'any animal form known to exist on Earth will eventually become an entry in SF's [science fiction's] xenomorphological catalogue' Csicsery-Ronay The Trilobite bears resemblance to an octopus-like creature, with her many tentacle-arms Figure 2. The octopus is a depiction of 'other-worldliness here on Earth' Seth Aliens possess 'strange body shapes, unusual abilities and uncanny intelligence' just like the octopus, which is 'our very own terrestrial alien' Seth The tentacles of this creature are central to the alien and the science fiction genres Seth , largely because, unlike humans who have their neurons concentrated in the central brain, the octopus has its half a billion neurons in 'its semi-autonomous arms which are like independent animals' Seth In Prometheus, the Trilobite uses its many arms to draw the engineer into its vagina dentata where he is suffocated.

Amia Srinivasan discusses the octopus and its ability to threaten boundaries. Like Seth, she also observes the octopus's likeness to an alien, observing that it is the closest encounter to alien life which humans can experience. Srinivasan also makes reference to a piece of artwork from , created by Hokusai which depicts a women sexually entwined with two octopi, while one performs oral-sex on the woman. This early image of art fuses female sexuality with the octopus. This art shows a 'mutual sexual desire' Vargas between the octopus and the woman and it is not a rape scene as some have suggested.

The octopus is depicted in a positive light, and the 'relationship between the woman and the octopus develops over time as a lover, companion, and a figure of protection' Stockins As a Japanese cultural export to the west, the figure of the octopus has been perverted, illustratively, culturally and socially, through graphic depictions of tentacle pornography appropriated from hentai. Like the Xenomorph-queen in Aliens , the Trilobite possesses both male and female organs; however, she is not androgynous. Her vagina dentata is far more explicit than her phallic arms and this 'is confirmed by' the 'graphic display of female anatomy', her 'vulva and labia' Bundtzen , which reside inside her cavity.

Csicsery-Ronay observes how '[t]he alien cannot be completely different because it is different in significant ways. The alien is fated to signify. It must have a mind, because if it does not, neither do we'. The Trilobite's sexual organs are far more explicit than those of the Xenomorph-queen's as they are much larger. The exaggeration of female sexual organs depicts a paradigm shift in contemporary Hollywood science fiction film as there is a lack of 'skilled and satisfying manipulation of visual pleasure' Mulvey This lies in contrast to woman as the prime object of the voyeur, denying the pleasure of scopophilia.

The 'voyeuristic phantasy' Mulvey is shattered, and the 'fascination with likeness and recognition' of human face and body Mulvey is replaced by horror and discomfort. In a similar fashion to the Xenomorph-queen, the Trilobite depicts 'female fecundity' which is 'prolific and devouring' Bundzen She is 'juicy femaleness, nature gone wild, not technology gone awry' Bundzen Her biological drive and fecundity are emphasised through her attempt at killing her mother, Shaw.

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Comparable to the Xenomorph she embodies 'woman's reproductive powers' Bundzen Her orifice on her underside harbours tendrils which are used to implant a host species into the engineer. This orifice bears explicit resemblance to the vagina dentata which is modelled on the primordial image of the 'vagina-with-teeth' Raitt Although the image of the vagina dentata is rooted in mythology Raitt , it became popularised in twentieth-century culture where it embodied male fears of the female anatomy Raitt and the threat of castration.

The terror embodied by the Trilobite evokes anxieties for a male audience as the threat of castration is imminent. The Trilobite is similar to the aliens that Csicsery-Ronay describes, in that she is driven by herself and she exists for herself. The earlier reference to the Trilobite and the species of cephalopoda invokes Sigmund Freud's mythological notion of the 'phallic mother'; the 'horror of the female genitals' and its psychoanalytical association to the arachnid. Freud draws a distinction between the mother and the spider, making reference to and stemming from the mythological Medusa, having snakes in place of hair Freud Like the octopus, the spider also has eight limbs extending from its body.

Freud links this horrifying mythological image of the spider to the fear of castration Freud Maureen Murdock also uses the image of the gorgon to describe what she refers to as the 'Terrible Mother' who represents 'stasis, suffocation and death'. She is both 'womb and tomb', and in as much as she is able to give life she also takes it away Murdock The Trilobite, like the Xenomorph-queen, arouses 'primal anxieties about women's sexual organs' as she emerges as the 'phallic mother of nightmare' Bundtzen Laura Mulvey has unravelled the ways 'in which narrative and filmic techniques in cinema make voyeurism an exclusively male prerogative' Smelik Through the impregnation scene involving the Trilobite and the engineer, Prometheus challenges this dichotomy through the phallic mother and her 'monstrous vagina' Creed Confrontation with the phallic mother causes the male viewer to look away.

Not only does the horror of the Trilobite and her explicit vagina dentata unravel the suturing processes, the Trilobite also performs a double castration on the engineer, first by raping him orally with her tendrils, and then by suffocating him with her monstrous vagina dentata.

The engineer's dead body becomes the vessel for her offspring: the horror that is the Xenomorph see Figure 3. Shaw and her contaminated husband produce the Trilobite, and the Trilobite and the engineer produce a Xenomorph. The 'representations of alien sex confront the problem of the unrepresentability of a nonoedipal desire' Rogan , as it 'exists outside lack and appropriation' Rogan The Trilobite and her fecundity are representative of procreative potential and power.

Her offspring lives within her womb and only requires the engineer as a vessel for its gestation. Bracha L Ettinger , using a psychoanalytic framework, discusses the notion of the 'matrixial stratum of subjectivization', which places signification on the 'womb' as opposed to the 'weight of the phallus' Ettinger , proposed by both Jacques Lacan and Sigmund Freud. For Freud the 'Western symbolic order derives its coherence from the phallus or paternal signifier', creating a dialogue centred on 'phallocentricity' Silverman For Lacan, the phallus 'designates the privileges of the symbolic', where the word 'lack' denotes the absence of the penis in females Silverman , denying them access to the power and privileges afforded by the phallus.

The Trilobite places an emphasis on the signification of the feminine, the vagina and the womb, and this shifts the gaze from serving the pleasures of the male to addressing issues of femininity and female power.

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The Trilobite is representative of the 'the body of the mother' as 'other' Ettinger Patriarchal culture constructs the womb as 'abject' Ettinger Ettinger refers to the importance of the archaic mother. She explores the potential of the womb for 'female development' by placing 'value on the subject' Ettinger The 'matrixial womb stands for a psychic capacity for shareability created in the border linking to a female body' Ettinger The womb thus has the capacity to become a 'major signifier' Ettinger The castration anxiety is a central concern of the horror film Creed Discussing Creed, Shohini Chaudhuri observes that woman in film can be representative of the woman as castrator or the femme castratrice.

The Trilobite can be described as the 'castrating mother' and the 'real source of horror' Chaudhuri The femme castratrice is 'an all-powerful, all-destructive figure' who awakens both the fear of castration and the fear of death in men Chaudhuri In films that feature the femme castratrice 'it is the male body, not the female body that bears the burden of castration' and the 'spectator is invited to identity with the avenging female castrator' Chaudhuri The female audience of Prometheus is thus called to identify with the Trilobite and her power to procreate from the castration enacted on the body of the male engineer.

The scene where the Xenomorph is born is a depiction of what Julia Kristeva refers to as abjection. The female alien Trilobite and its excessiveness evoke what Kristeva describes as 'abjection', the place 'where meaning collapses' Kristeva Abjection occurs when identity systems and order are disrupted Kristeva The abject does not respect 'borders, positions, [or] rules' Kristeva Kristeva observes, 'the abject is perverse because is neither gives up nor assumes a prohibition', it 'kills in the name of life' Kristeva The Trilobite exists for the sole purpose of reproduction.

Her phallic arms are in constant search for a vessel in which she can implant her offspring for gestation.

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In an analysis of abjection within the Alien franchise, Creed explores whether the genre of horror can cause the male spectator to embody the abject, causing alterations in one's physical state when confronted with the monstrous-feminine Creed The amniotic fluid seen in a representation of the primal scene when the Xenomorph emerges from the dead body of the engineer 'signifies a desire [ Abjection fills the spectator with 'disgust and loathing' while simultaneously pointing 'back to a time when a "fusion between mother and nature" existed; when bodily wastes, while set apart from the body, were not seen as objects of embarrassment and shame' Creed Susan Hayward , employing a psychoanalytic angle on feminist film theory observes how, often in film, the Elektra complex 5 for the female is confirmed even when the phallic mother is present, as the female hero kills the mother and marries the father.

Prometheus works to unsettle this contention as Shaw does not successfully kill the phallic mother, and she does not unite with the symbolic father; in fact, the film establishes that Shaw lost her father at a young age and she is also tragically widowed when her husband comes into contact with alien DNA. The agency that she achieves through escaping the phallic mother, killing the engineer and saving the entire human race establishes her as a powerful female figure, who does not require a union with a male counterpart.

Shaw's state of maturity is achieved before her encounter with the phallic mother, as is visible through her success as an academic and a professional. Making use of a feminist analysis of Prometheus, the female viewer of the film is given the opportunity to employ a resistant view which refutes the prevailing male gaze. Zoe Dirse discusses the multi-layered nature of the female gaze where the bearer of the look is female and the subject is female, creating a situation where the subject subverts the gaze and gazes at herself.

The Trilobite and its graphic display of female sexual organs creates a situation where the female viewer confronts her own femininity in and through the female sexual organs of the Trilobite. Mulvey cites the function of woman in cinema as being expected to hold the look of the audience, play to, and signify male desire. The images of the female entities in Prometheus have the opposite effect, forcing the male viewer to confront a metaphorical castration through the physical oral rape and symbolic castration occurring on the screen.

In James Cameron's Aliens the viewers were not permitted a proper look at the Xenomorph-queen. Employing a similar tactic, the viewers of the Trilobite are not permitted a thorough look at the alien-mother. This, in addition to the intentional lack of proper lighting in the scene, functions to amplify the anxiety and discomfort for the audience. Not only is the audience denied a proper viewing, the audience may look away from the discomfort created by explicit sexual nature of the Trilobite's orifice. For Mulvey , the woman in Hollywood cinema and her 'lack' of a penis implies a 'threat of castration and unpleasure' for the male audience.

The Trilobite has both phallic arms and a vagina dentata, signifying simultaneously the fear of rape and castration. Considering that the engineer as a male is her first victim and that his capture is brought about by her multiple tendrils and oral rape, the scene evokes increasing anxieties of castration and rape for the male audience figure 4.

The 'voyeuristic or fetishistic mechanisms' Mulvey are removed, making the threat of castration unavoidable. Within Cameron's film the terror evoked by the Xenomorph-queen is 'grounded in archetypal fears of woman's otherness, her alien body and its natural functions' Bundtzen The Trilobite amplifies this anxiety further through its explicit and graphic display of female sexual organs.

MR Online | The commodity and the making of “woman”

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