Whole grains c. Cocoa d. White rice. Studies on the effects of phytochemicals on health have been hindered the most by which of the following? Lack of phytochemical nutrient databases b. Lack of knowledge of the interactions among phytochemicals c. Lack of available funding for phytochemical research d. Dangers in eating too much phytochemical-rich food. Phytochemicals are thought to be involved in which of the following?
Preventing DNA damage b. Antihistamine effects c. Antibiotic effects d. Anti-HIV effects. References 1. Dietary Guidelines for Americans, Fruit and vegetable intake and risk of major chronic disease. J Natl Cancer Inst. Slavin JL, Lloyd B. Health benefits of fruits and vegetables. Adv Nutr. Effects of tea and coffee on cardiovascular disease risk. Food Funct. The impact of coffee on health. The impact of green tea and coffee consumption on the reduced risk of stroke incidence in Japanese population: The Japan Public health center-based study cohort. Cocoa polyphenols and their potential benefits for human health.
Oxid Med Cell Longev. J Nutr. Polyphenols and disease risk in epidemiologic studies. Am J Clin Nutr. Chalker-Scott L. Environmental significance of anthocyanins in plant stress responses. Photochem Photobiol. Phytonutrient intake by adults in the United States in relation to fruit and vegetable consumption. J Acad Nutr Diet. Fruits and vegetable consumption and risk of coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis of cohort studies. Increased consumption of fruit and vegetables is related to a reduced risk of coronary heart disease: meta-analysis of cohort studies. J Hum Hypertens.
Health-promoting effects of green tea. The effect of black tea on risk factors of cardiovascular disease in a normal population. Prev Med. Aging and vascular responses to flavanol-rich cocoa. J Hypertens. Whole grain intake and cardiovascular disease: a meta-analysis. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. Greater whole-grain intake is associated with lower risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and weight gain.
Fardet A. New hypotheses for the health-protective mechanism of whole-grain cereals: what is beyond fibre? Nutr Res Rev. Whole- and refined-grain intakes and the risk of hypertension in women. Effect of increased consumption of whole-grain foods on blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk markers in healthly middle-aged persons: a randomized controlled trial. Short-term effects of whole-grain wheat on appetite and food intake in healthy adults: a pilot study. Br J Nutr. Flavonoids, flavonoid subclasses and breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies.
Phytochemicals’ Role in Good Health
Critical review: vegetables and fruit in the prevention of chronic diseases. Eur J Nutr. Lung cancer risk and consumption of vegetables and fruit: an evaluation based on a systematic review of epidemiological evidence from Japan. Jpn J Clin Oncol. Dietary fibre, whole grains, and risk of colorectal cancer: systematic review and dose-response meta-aalysis of prospective studies.
A prospective study of whole grains, fruits, vegetables and colon cancer risk. Cancer Causes Control.
Flavonoids and cancer prevention: a review of the evidence. J Nutr Gerontol Geriatr. Juge N. Mithen RF, Traka M. Molecular basis for chemoprevention by sulforaphane: a comprehensive review. Cell Mol Life Sci. Bondesson M, Gustafsson JA. Does consuming isoflavones reduce or increase breast cancer risk? Genome Med. Sak K. Chemotherapy and dietary phytochemical agents. Chemother Res Pract. Phytochemicals resveratrol and sulforaphane as potential agents for enhancing the anti-tumor activities of conventional cancer therapies.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol. Phytochemicals as chemosensitizers: from molecular mechanism to clinical significance. Antioxid Redox Signal. Tea and cancer prevention: molecular mechanisms and human relevance. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. Cancer prevention by tea and tea polyphenols. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. The chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic potentials of tea polyphenols.
Potential for preventive effects of cocoa and cocoa polyphenols in cancer. Food Chem Toxicol. Dietary phytochemicals and their potential effects on obesity: a review. Pharmacol Res. Eur J Clin Nutr. Fruit and vegetable intake and incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus: systematic review and meta-analysis. Impact of dietary polyphenols on carbohydrate metabolism. Int J Mol Sci. Dietary flavonoid intakes and risk of type 2 diabetes in US men and women.
Associations of dietary flavonoids with risk of type 2 diabetes, and markers of insulin resistance and systemic inflammation in women: a prospective study and cross-sectional analysis. J Am Coll Nutr. The InterAct Consortium. Chronic ingestion of flavanols and isoflavones improves insulin sensitivity and lipoprotein status and attenuates estimated year CVD risk in medicated postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes: a 1-year, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial.
Diabetes Care. Whole grain, bran, and germ intake and risk of type 2 diabetes: a prospective cohort study and systematic review. PLoS Med. Evidence-based guideline of the German Nutrition Society: carbohydrate intake and prevention of nutrition-related diseases. Ann Nutr Metab.
Combined treatment with capsaicin and resveratrol enhances neuroprotection against glutamate-induced toxicity in mouse cerebral cortical neurons. Curr Pharm Des. Spencer JP. Flavonoids and brain health: multiple effects underpinned by common mechanisms. Genes Nutr.
Flavonoids, cognition, and dementia: actions, mechanisms, and potential therapeutic utility for Alzheimer disease. Free Radic Biol Med. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. Mov Disord.
- The First Family: Terror, Extortion, Revenge, Murder, and the Birth of the American Mafia!
- Bisociative Knowledge Discovery: An Introduction to Concept, Algorithms, Tools, and Applications.
- Operations Research and Networks.
- Railroads Across North America: An Illustrated History?
Habitual intake of dietary flavonoids and risk of Parkinson disease. Target-based selection of flavonoids for neurodegenerative disorders. Trends Pharmacol Sci. Cocoa flavanols and brain perfusion. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. The effect of flavanol-rich cocoa on the fMRI response to a cognitive task in healthy young people. Furthermore, very few of the cyclotides in C. Likewise, none of the C. With these suggestions for future work on this fascinating plant we feel that many more exciting discoveries are on the horizon. DC and GO conceived and planned the framework for this article.
All authors contributed to the writing and editing.
chapter and author info
The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. We thank Innovate Ag Pty. Abdelhamid, A. The evaluation of new sources of fodder Clitoria and Phillipesara under Egyptian conditions.
Adhikary, R. Clitoria ternatea flower petals: effect on TNFR1 neutralization via downregulation of synovial matrix metalloproteases. Ajesh, K. A novel antifungal protein with lysozyme-like activity from seeds of Clitoria ternatea. Alderete-Chavez, A. Evaluation of Clitoria ternatea L. Altschul, S. Basic local alignment search tool. Anthika, B. Ultrasonic approach in Clitoria ternatea butterfly pea extraction in water and extract sterilization by ultrafiltration for eye drop active ingredient. Procedia Chem. Appelhagen, I. Colour bio-factories: towards scale-up production of anthocyanins in plant cell cultures.
Banerjee, S. Taraxerol from Clitoria ternatea Linn. Calcutta Sch. PubMed Abstract Google Scholar. Taraxerone from Clitoria ternatea Linn. Barro, C. The study of Clitoria ternatea L. Evolution of the chemical composition at four different growth stages. Food Agric. Bhatia, M. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Clitoria ternatea Linn. Bi, X. Enzymatic engineering of live bacterial cell surfaces using butelase 1.
Biyoshi, A. Polymorphism in flower colour and petal type in Aparajita Clitoria ternatea. Open Access J. Plants 3, 12— Google Scholar. Burman, R. Distribution of circular proteins in plants: large-scale mapping of cyclotides in the Violaceae. Plant Sci. Chouabe, C. New mode of action for a knottin protein bioinsecticide: pea albumin 1 subunit b PA1b is the first peptidic inhibitor of V-ATPase. Chusak, C. Influence of Clitoria ternatea flower extract on the in vitro enzymatic digestibility of starch and its application in bread.
Foods Acute effect of Clitoria ternatea flower beverage on glycemic response and antioxidant capacity in healthy subjects: a randomized crossover trial. BMC Complement. Cobley, L. An Introduction to the Botany of Tropical Crops.
Phytochemical Resources for Medicine and Agriculture
Colina, V. Effect of defoliation on biomass production of Clitoria ternatea L. Cuban J. Conlan, B. Circular micro-proteins and mechanisms of cyclization. Conway, M. Collins and T. Rowe, N. Mendham, and D. Donaghy Hobart: The Regional Institute. Craik, D. Host-defense activities of cyclotides. Toxins 4, — Plant cyclotides: a unique family of cyclic and knotted proteins that defines the cyclic cystine knot structural motif. Cyclotides as a basis for drug design.
Expert Opin. Drug Discov. Cruz, M. Factors affecting germination of Canavalia brasiliensis , Leucaena leucocephala , Clitoria ternatea and Calopogonium mucunoides seeds. Seed Sci. Das, N. Antifungal effect of Clitoria ternatea leaf extract on seeds of Pisum sativum in relation to the activities of some enzymes. Ayurveda Pharm. De Souza, E. N2-fixation and growth of the calopogonium Calopogonium mucunoides Desv.
Devi, B. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic properties of Clitoria ternatea root. Fitoterapia 74, — Duangkhet, M. Isolation and characterization of rhizobia from nodules of Clitoria ternatea in Thailand. Plant Biotechnol. Dwivedi, G. Nitrogen economy, dry matter production and seed production potential of Setaria sphacelata by intercropping of pasture legumes.
Crop Sci. Falck, G. Enzyme-based labeling strategies for antibody-drug conjugates and antibody mimetics. Antibodies Fantz, P. Felizmenio-Quimio, M. Circular proteins in plants: solution structure of a novel macrocyclic trypsin inhibitor from Momordica cochinchinensis. Gelly, J. Nucleic Acids Res. Gilding, E. Gene coevolution and regulation lock cyclic plant defence peptides to their targets. New Phytol. Goodstein, D. Phytozome: a comparative platform for green plant genomics. Grindley, D. The seed oils of Clitoria ternatea and Entada phaseoloides. Gruber, C. A novel plant protein-disulfide isomerase involved in the oxidative folding of cystine knot defense proteins.
Distribution and evolution of circular miniproteins in flowering plants. Plant Cell 20, — Do plant cyclotides have potential as immunosuppressant peptides? Cyclotides suppress human T-lymphocyte proliferation by an interleukin 2-dependent mechanism. PLoS One Habish, H. Nodulation of legumes in the Sudan. Effects of soil moisture, light and temperature on nodulation of Clitoria ternatea.
East Afr. CrossRef Full Text. Hall, T. Adaptation and agronomy of Clitoria ternatea L. Grasslands 19, — Harada, G. Delphinidinglucoside suppresses lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells. Cytotechnology 70, — Harmand, T. One-pot dual labeling of IgG 1 and preparation of C-to-C fusion proteins through a combination of sortase A and butelase 1. Harris, K. Efficient backbone cyclization of linear peptides by a recombinant asparaginyl endopeptidase. Hasan, N.
Preliminary assessment of the response of Clitoria ternatea lines to the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita. Nematologica 31, — Ismail, N. High frequency in vitro shoot regeneration of Clitoria ternatea L. Indian J. Jackson, M. Molecular basis for the production of cyclic peptides by plant asparaginyl endopeptidases. Jain, N. Clitoria ternatea and the CNS. Jones, R. Measurements of nutritive value of a range of tropical legumes and their use in legume evaluation.
Grasslands 34, 78— Joshi, S. Chemical examination of Clitoria ternatea seeds. Oil Chem. Jouvensal, L. Biochemistry 42, — Kamh, M. Mobilization of phosphorus contributes to positive rotational effects of leguminous cover crops on maize grown on soils from northern Nigeria. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci.
Kamilla, L. Effects of Clitoria ternatea leaf extract on growth and morphogenesis of Aspergillus niger.
Kavitha, R. Biochemical studies on the effect of ethanolic extracts of Trichosanthes dioica and Clitoria ternatea in streptozotocin induced male Wistar rats. Kazuma, K. Flavonoid composition related to petal color in different lines of Clitoria ternatea. Phytochemistry 64, — Malonylated flavonol glycosides from the petals of Clitoria ternatea. Phytochemistry 62, — Kelemu, S. Antimicrobial and insecticidal protein isolated from seeds of Clitoria ternatea , a tropical forage legume.
Plant Physiol. Khadatkar, S. In-vitro anthelmintic activity of root of Clitoria ternatea Linn. Koehbach, J. Cyclotide discovery in Gentianales revisited—identification and characterization of cyclic cystine-knot peptides and their phylogenetic distribution in Rubiaceae plants. Biopolymers , — Kondo, T. Structure of ternatin B1, a pentaacylated anthocyanin substituted on the B-ring asymmetrically with two long chains.
Tetrahedron 46, — Kulshreshtha, D. Kumar, V. Kumari, N. Effect of some indigenous plant extracts on the inhibition of egg hatching of nematode Meloidogyne incognita Chitwood infesting mulberry. HortFlora Res. Lakshmanan, K. Callus, organogenesis and plantlet formation in tissue cultures of Clitoria ternatea. Lakshmanan, M. Effect of ascochitine on the in vitro growth of embryos of Clitoria Ternatea L. Liu, R. Two antimicrobial and nematicidal peptides derived from sequences encoded Picea sitchensis.
Mahala, A. Effect of Plant age on DM yield and nutritive value of some leguminous plants Cyamopsis tetragonoloba , Lablab purpureus and Clitoria Clitoria ternatea. Mahmad, N. Encapsulated embryogenic callus of Clitoria ternatea L. Maity, N. Standardized Clitoria ternatea leaf extract as hyaluronidase, elastase and matrix-metalloproteinase-1 inhibitor.
McDonald, C. Germination response to temperature in tropical and subtropical pasture legumes. Constant temperature. Mensah, R. Development of Clitoria ternatea as a biopesticide for cotton pest management: assessment of product effect on Helicoverpa spp. Mhaskar, A. In vitro regeneration of Clitoria ternatea L. Mohamed, N. Plant regeneration of Clitoria ternatea from leaf explants cultured in vitro.
Morita, N. Studies on the constituents of formosan leguminosae: the constituents in the leaves of Clitoria ternatea L. Yakugaku Zasshi 97, — Morris, J. Characterization of butterfly pea Clitoria ternatea L. Crop Evol. Mukherjee, P. The Ayurvedic medicine Clitoria ternatea -from traditional use to scientific assessment. Mukhtar, S. Influencing micropropagation in Clitoria ternatea L. Plants 18, — Mullick, P.
Eco-physiological studies on seed germination: germination experiments with the seeds of Clitoria ternatea Linn. Mylne, J. Cyclic peptides arising by evolutionary parallelism via asparaginyl-endopeptidase-mediated biosynthesis. Plant Cell 24, — Albumins and their processing machinery are hijacked for cyclic peptides in sunflower. Nguyen, G.
Butelase 1: a versatile ligase for peptide and protein macrocyclization. Butelase 1 is an Asx-specific ligase enabling peptide macrocyclization and synthesis. Butelase-mediated macrocyclization of d-amino-acid-containing peptides. Nguyen, K. Immunostimulating and gram-negative-specific antibacterial cyclotides from the butterfly pea Clitoria ternatea.
FEBS J. Butelase-mediated cyclization and ligation of peptides and proteins. Discovery and characterization of novel cyclotides originated from chimeric precursors consisting of albumin-1 chain a and cyclotide domains in the Fabaceae family. Nigg, J. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 51, 86— Njunie, M. Residue decomposition and nutrient release dynamics from two tropical forage legumes in a Kenyan environment.
Oblisami, G. Studies on the rhizobium and nodulation pattern in a forage legume Clitoria ternatea. Indian Natl. B Biol. Oram, R. Register of Australian herbage plant cultivars. Pandeya, K. In vitro propagation of Clitoria ternatea L. Plants Res. Parimaladevi, B. Evaluation of antipyretic potential of Clitoria ternatea L. Phytomedicine 11, — Park, S. Cyclotide evolution: insights from the analyses of their precursor sequences, structures and distribution in violets Viola. Pasukamonset, P. Alginate-based encapsulation of polyphenols from Clitoria ternatea petal flower extract enhances stability and biological activity under simulated gastrointestinal conditions.
Food Hydrocoll. Oxidative stability of cooked pork patties incorporated with Clitoria ternatea extract blue pea flower petal during refrigerated storage. Food Process. Physicochemical, antioxidant and sensory characteristics of sponge cakes fortified with Clitoria ternatea extract. Food Sci. Patel, J. Effect of seed treatment on germination and flavonoids diversity in accessions of butterfly pea Clitoria ternatea.
Perry, T. The biology of insecticidal activity and resistance. Insect Biochem.
- Machine Learning: Modeling Data Locally and Globally?
- Plant Food Allergens.
- Mechanics (Berkeley Physics Course, Vol. 1)?
- Phytochemical Resources for Medicine and Agriculture | SpringerLink!
Phrueksanan, W. Protection of Clitoria ternatea flower petal extract against free radical-induced hemolysis and oxidative damage in canine erythrocytes. Piala, J. Diuretic activity of roots of Clitoria ternatea L. Experientia Plan, M. The cyclotide fingerprint in Oldenlandia affinis : elucidation of chemically modified, linear and novel macrocyclic peptides. ChemBioChem 8, — Poth, A. Discovery of an unusual biosynthetic origin for circular proteins in legumes. Discovery of cyclotides in the Fabaceae plant family provides new insights into the cyclization, evolution, and distribution of circular proteins.
ACS Chem. Pullaiah, T. Embryology of Clitoria ternatea Fabaceae. Plant Biosyst. Raghu, K. Age dependent neuroprotective effects of medhya rasayana prepared from Clitoria ternatea Linn. Rai, K. Clitoria ternatea Linn root extract treatment during growth spurt period enhances learning and memory in rats. Clitoria ternatea root extract enhances acetylcholine content in rat hippocampus.
Fitoterapia 73, — Altered dendritic arborization of amygdala neurons in young adult rats orally intubated with Clitorea ternatea aqueous root extract. Reid, R. An evaluation of C. Rout, G. Micropropagation of Clitoria ternatea Linn. Fabaceae — An important medicinal plant. In Vitro Cell. Plant 41, — Saito, N. Acylated delphinidin glucosides and flavonols from Clitoria ternatea. Phytochemistry 24, — Salhan, M. Comparative anthelmintic activity of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Clitoria ternatea.
Drug Dev. Serra, A. A high-throughput peptidomic strategy to decipher the molecular diversity of cyclic cysteine-rich peptides. Shahid, M. Antibacterial potential of the extracts derived from leaves and in vitro raised calli of medicinal plants Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. Shahzad, A. Micropropagation through excised root culture of Clitoria ternatea and comparison between in vitro regenerated plants and seedlings.
Singh, N. Anti-allergy and anti-tussive activity of Clitoria ternatea L. Siti Azima, A. Phenolics, antioxidants and color properties of aqueous pigmented plant extracts: Ardisia colorata var. Foods 38, — Sogo, T. Anti-inflammatory activity and molecular mechanism of delphinidin 3-sambubioside, a Hibiscus anthocyanin. BioFactors 41, 58— Solanki, Y. Antihyperlipidemic activity of Clitoria ternatea and Vigna mungo in rats. Staples, I. Mannetje and R. Jones Wageningen: Pudoc Scientific Publishers.
Sushma, N. Facile approach to synthesize magnesium oxide nanoparticles by using Clitoria ternatea -characterization and in vitro antioxidant studies. Swain, S. Production of triterpenoid anti-cancer compound taraxerol in Agrobacterium -transformed root cultures of butterfly pea Clitoria ternatea L. Hairy root cultures of butterfly pea Clitoria ternatea L. World J. Talpate, K. Neuroprotective and nootropic activity of Clitorea ternatea Linn.
Fabaceae leaves on diabetes induced cognitive decline in experimental animals. Bioallied Sci. Tani, T. Delphinidin 3-rutinoside-rich blackcurrant extract ameliorates glucose tolerance by increasing the release of glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion. Taranalli, A. Influence of Clitoria ternatea extracts on memory and central cholinergic activity in rats. Taur, D. Evaluation of antiasthmatic activity of Clitoria ternatea L. Pharmacognostical and preliminary phytochemical evaluation of Clitoria ternatea leaves.
Terahara, N. Structure of ternatin A1, the largest ternatin in the major blue anthocyanins from Clitoria ternatea flowers. Tetrahedron Lett. Structure of ternatin D1, an acylated anthocyanin from Clitoria ternatea flowers. Acylated anthocyanins of Clitoria ternatea flowers and their acyl moieties. Phytochemistry 29, — Further structural elucidation of the anthocyanin, deacylternatin, from Clitoria ternatea.
Structure of ternatin A2, one of Clitoria ternatea flower anthocyanins having the unsymmetrical side chains. Heterocycles 31, — Thell, K. Oral activity of a nature-derived cyclic peptide for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Vasisht, K. Norneolignans from the roots of Clitoria ternatea L. Yamada, K. A VPE family supporting various vacuolar functions in plants. Plant , — Zaroug, M. Effects of phosphorus and sulfur nutrition on soluble sugars and growth in Clitoria ternatea L. Plant Soil 55, — Screening strains of Rhizobium for the tropical legumes Clitoria ternatea and Vigna trilobata in soils of different pH.
Grasslands 14, 28— Keywords : peptides, forage crop, anthocyanins, organic pesticide, butelase, medicinal plant. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s and the copyright owner s are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
Craik, d. Toggle navigation. Login Register Login using. You can login by using one of your existing accounts.