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Cherry, ed. Reverdin, O. Rudhardt, ed. Rich, J. The Athenian orator Demosthenes c. The Greek city-states continued to war with each other while Philip II was calmly taking their cities for his own and enlarging his treasury. At the Battle of Chaeronea in BCE, Philip II and his year old son Alexander defeated the combined forces of Athens and Thebes and this victory enabled him to form the Pan - Hellenic Congress, with himself as its head, which established peace and effectively brought Greece under Macedonian control.
Philip did not enjoy his great victory for long, however, as he was assassinated in BCE and Alexander took the throne. Alexander inherited not only a vast standing army but a healthy treasury, infrastructure, and an entire nation which was now subject to his will. He did not need to make bargains or concessions with any other country in order to initiate his policies. Throughout all these campaigns, Alexander spread the culture of Greece while allowing the people of the various regions to continue worshipping the gods of their choice and conducting themselves as they pleased — as long as they caused him no trouble and kept his supply lines open — while simultaneously investigating and recording the culture and other aspects of each land.
Scholar Ian Worthington comments:. During his campaigns Alexander was always intent on finding out everything he could about the areas through which he passed. He took with him an entourage of scientists to record and analyse this information, from botany, biology, zoology and meteorology, to topography. His desire to learn, and to have information recorded as scientifically as possible, probably stemmed from Aristotle's teachings and enthusiasm. He adopted the tile ShahanShah King of Kings and introduced Persian customs into his army while, at the same time, sharing Greek culture with the people of Persia.
He carried this culture with him to India in his BCE invasion which was halted only because his men threatened mutiny if he did not turn back.
He was allegedly contemplating another move to expand his empire when he died, after ten days of fever, in June of BCE. As he did not name a successor, his four generals divided his empire between them. These generals, Lysimachus, Cassander, Ptoelmy, and Seleucus, initially spent their time warring with each other for more territory but even as they ravaged the land with battles, their very presence in the region encouraged the diffusion of Hellenization which had been established by Alexander.
Easily the most successful of these four, in this regard as in others, was Ptolemy I r. His efforts at Alexandria produced an almost seamless blending of Egyptian and Greek cultures as epitomized in his personal god Serapis. Serapis was a combination of Egyptian and Greek gods Osiris , Apis , and Zeus and his worship was established as a state religion by Ptolemy I. Although other gods continued to be venerated, Ptolemy I encouraged the cult of Serapis by building the great temple of the Serapeum in Alexandria and the Great Library to accompany it.
The library drew scholars from around the world and elevated Alexandria to a center of learning which rivaled even Athens. Under Ptolemy I, construction of the Lighthouse at Alexandria one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World began and the city, as well as the entire region under his control, flourished.
Hellenization, in fact, inspired one of the most popular Jewish holidays, Chanukah, which celebrates the liberation of the Temple of Jerusalem from the Syrian Greeks under Antiochus IV Epiphanes BCE who, according to the traditional story, tried to force Hellenic gods on the Jewish people and instigated the Maccabean Revolt of c. Recent scholarship suggests, however, that the revolt was actually a civil war between Jewish factions: Hellenic Jews who embraced Greek values and traditionalists who resisted them. In this version of the story, Antiochus IV Epiphanes becomes involved in this civil war on the behalf of the Hellenistic Jews and his participation is forced as opposed to the traditional story in which he is depicted as imposing his will on the Jewish people of Palestine.
Either way, Hellenism played a crucial role in the revolt of the Maccabees who would later found the Hasmonean Dynasty which, through its wars with the neighboring Kingdom of Nabatea , would attract the attention of Rome and lead to the eventual conquest of the region. Hellenistic thought is evident in the narratives which make up the books of the Bible as the Hebrew Scriptures were revised and canonized during the Second Temple Period c.
The gospels and epistles of the Christian New Testament were written in Greek and draw on Greek philosophy and religion as, for example, in the first chapter of the Gospel of John in which the word becomes flesh, a Platonic concept. The Romans were far from tolerant of the beliefs of other nations unless they corresponded closely with their own. Adherence to Hellenic thought, therefore, was a popular alternative to persecution for the citizens of these regions. Editorial Review This Article has been reviewed for accuracy, reliability and adherence to academic standards prior to publication.
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Mark published on 01 November Remove Ads Advertisement. The Anabasis of Alexander. Ulan Press, Diodorus Siculus. Diodorus Siculus' Histories. Harvard University Press, Durant, W. The Life of Greece.