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Using the data from this sample, you fit a statistical model to test. Statistics boil. If that model can explain a lot of the variation in the. If the probability. Cohen, J. Things I have learned so far. American Psychologist, 45 12 , — The earth is round p. This book has. Domjan, M. The adaptive significance of sexual conditioning:.

I arrived in my. In a fairly transparent ploy to make. While I was nervously trying to discover whether I could build a pile of. Within an hour he was my new best friend 5 year olds are fickle …. The SPSS environment is a generally. The purpose of this. I will orient.

We will explore the key windows in SPSS. We finish off by looking at how to load. This book is based primarily on version 17 of SPSS at least in terms of the. Although this. So, this third edition , although dealing with version 17, will. In case. SPSS mainly uses two windows: the data editor this is where you input your data and carry.

However, there are various. If you already have a data file on disk that you would. In the space underneath this option there will be a list of. To open a selected file click on. The main SPSS window includes a data editor for entering data. This window is where. At the top of this screen is a menu bar similar to the ones you.

If these underlined letters are not visible in Windows XP they seemed to disappear, but in Vista they appear to. M M This menu contains edit functions for the data editor. In SPSS it is possible to. SPSS Tip 7. The compute function is also useful for transforming data e. By default, when you try to open a file from SPSS it will go to the directory in which the program is stored on your.

This is fine if you happen to store all of your data and output in that folder, but if not then you will find. Well, we can get around this by telling. This dialog box allows you to select a folder in which SPSS will initially look for data files and other files. In the dialog box here. I have clicked on and then navigated to my data folder. SPSS will use this as the default location when. I try to open files and my wrists are spared the indignity of RSI.

You can also select the option for SPSS to use. As well as the menus there is also a set of icons at the top of the data editor window see. Figure 3.

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All of these facilities can. Below is a brief list. This icon gives you the option to open a previously saved file if you are in the data editor SPSS assumes. This icon allows you to save files. It will save the file you are currently working on be it data or output. This icon activates a dialog box for printing whatever you are currently working on either the data editor or the.

The exact print options will depend on the printer you use. By default SPSS will print everything in the. Clicking on this icon will activate a list of the last 12 dialog boxes that were used. From this list you can. This icon makes it easy for you to repeat. The world would be a much nicer place if clicking on this icon answered this question, but instead the. Instead, clicking. The dialog box below shows the information for the file that we used for the previous.

Clicking on this icon inserts a new case in the data editor so it creates a blank row at the point that is. This function is very useful if you need to add new data at a. Clicking on this icon creates a new variable to the left of the variable that is currently active to activate a. In SPSS we differentiate. For example, we might test males and females on their statistical ability. If we. Any subsequent analyses will be performed on the men and women separately. There are situations across many disciplines where this might be useful: sociologists and economists.

This function allows you to specify what cases you want to include in the analysis. There is a Flash movie on the companion website that shows you how to select cases in your data file. Clicking on this icon will either display or hide the value labels of any coding variables. We often group. If you press. This idea will become. When inputting a new set of data, you must input your data in a logical way. The SPSS. Data Editor is arranged such that each row represents data from one entity while each column. You could then ask them to hold a hot potato and again measure their.

There is a simple rule for how variables should be placed in the SPSS Data Editor: data from different things go in different. As such, each. Data within. In experimental research this means that any variable measured with the same participants a repeated measure. However, any variable that defines different groups of things such as when a between-group design. This idea will become clearer as you learn about how to carry out specific procedures. This golden. As such, this variable is a. Rather than representing. This involves assigning each group.

Therefore, betweengroup. For example, we might decide that if. We then have to tell SPSS that every time it sees a 1 in a particular column the person. Variables that specify to which of. The data editor is made up of lots of cells, which are just boxes in which data values can be. When a cell is active it becomes highlighted in blue as in Figure 3. You can move. To enter a number. So, to enter a row of data, move to the far left of the row, type the value and then. Before we input any data into the data editor, we need to create the variables.

To create variables. You can change various. You can enter a name in this column for each variable. This name will appear at the top of the. In current. You can have different types of data. Mostly you will use numeric variables which just means that the. You will come across string variables,. You can also have currency variables. By default, when a new variable is created, SPSS sets it up to be numeric and to store 8 digits, but you can. Normally 8 digits is fine, but if. Another default setting is to have 2 decimal places displayed. If you want to change the number of decimal places for.

Therefore, you can write a. This may seem pointless, but is actually one of the best habits. This column is for assigning numbers to represent groups of people see Section 3. Enter a number into this column to determine the width of the column that is how many characters are. This differs from , which determines the width of the variable itself — you. It can be useful to increase the column width if you have.

You can use this column to select the alignment of the data in the corresponding column of the data. This is where you define the level at which a variable was measured Nominal, Ordinal or Scale — section.

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Why is it a good idea to take the time and effort to type in long variable names for your variables? In a way, I can understand why it would seem to be so, but as you go through your course. The chances. Number of shots at goal? Number of shots I drank? Imagine we were interested in looking. This variable consists. The problem is that although SPSS has assumed that we want a numeric variable i. By default, SPSS selects the numeric variable type. To change the variable to a string variable, click on.

The default is 8, which is fine for us because our longest. To register this value in this cell, we have to move to a different cell and. Notice that the second column in our table contains dates birth dates to be exact. To enter. Click on to activate the dialog box in Figure 3. By default, SPSS selects the numeric. To register this value in this cell, move down to the next cell by. A coding variable also known as a grouping variable is a variable that uses numbers to represent.

These groups of data could be levels of a treatment variable. If you were to. When you come to put the data into the data editor,. In situations. We have a coding variable in our data: the one describing whether a person was a lecturer or. To create this coding variable, we follow the steps for creating a normal variable, but. So, first of. First, click with the mouse in the white space next to where it says Value or press Alt.

These codes are completely arbitrary; for. The second step is to click the mouse in. In Figure 3. To finish,. SPSS will display a message warning you that any pending changes will be lost. In plain English. Therefore, you should specify the level at which the. You can get SPSS to display the numeric codes, or the value labels that. The first five participants were lecturers. This situation.

Numeric variables are the easiest ones to create because SPSS assumes this format for data. As with the previous variables we have created, SPSS has. Although as researchers we strive to collect complete sets of data, it is often the case that we. Nevertheless, we do need to.

The principle behind missing values. This value tells SPSS that there is no recorded value for a participant. For example, if we tell the computer. By default SPSS assumes that no missing values exist, but if you do have data with missing. The first is to select discrete values. SPSS allows you to specify up to three discrete values. So, we could. SPSS displays both graphs and the results of. It is also possible to edit graphs and to do this.

On the left-hand side of the output viewer there. This tree diagram is useful when. The tree structure is fairly self-explanatory in that every time you do. For example, in.

SPSS for Beginners 1: Introduction

So, if you wanted to skip straight to the between-group effects. This action will highlight this part of the. As with the data editor window, this icon activates the print menu. However, when this icon is pressed in. This icon takes you to the last output in the viewer so it returns you to the last procedure you conducted. This icon promotes the currently active part of the tree structure to a higher branch of the tree. If we wanted to promote this part of the output to a higher level i. This icon is the opposite of the above in that it demotes parts of the tree structure. For example, in Figure.

This button is. This icon collapses parts of the tree structure, which simply means that it hides the sub-components under.

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For example, in Figure 3. The sections that disappear from the tree. This can be useful. This icon expands any collapsed sections. By default all of the main headings are displayed in the tree. If, however, you have opted to collapse part of the tree diagram using the. This icon and the following one allow you to show and hide parts of the output itself. So you can select. This icon is similar to the collapse icon listed above except that it. This is useful for hiding less relevant parts of the output. This icon undoes the previous one, so if you have hidden a selected part of the output from view and you.

By default, all parts of the output are shown, so this. Although this icon looks rather like a paint roller, unfortunately it does not paint the house for you. What it.

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For example, if you had several statistical tests. Assuming you had done the above, you can use this icon to provide your new heading with a title. This final icon is used to place a text box in the output window. You can type anything into this box. In the. The following analyses test the hypothesis that boredom levels will be significantly higher at the end. For example, you might see a value such as 9. If the notation read 9. Progress is all well and good, but it usually comes at a price and with version 16 of SPSS the.

When you save an output file in version 17, SPSS uses the file extension. In versions of SPSS before version 16, the viewer documents. Why does this matter? Well, it matters mainly. Similarly in. Actually bugger. This is a language.

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Fortunately this is easily done because many dialog boxes in SPSS have a button. The rules of SPSS syntax can be quite frustrating; for example, each line. The window also has a navigation area rather. Another thing to note is that in SPSS you can have several data files open. Although most of you should be familiar with how to save files, it is a vital thing to know.

If you are in the data editor when you. There are several features of the dialog box in Figure 3. First, you need to select a location. The first thing to do is select a main location by. Once you have selected a folder in which to save. If you click in the space next to where it says. File name, a cursor will appear and you can type a name. By default, the file will be saved in. However, you can save data in different formats such as Microsoft Excel files and tabdelimited. Click on the file type you require. Once a file has previously been. The procedure is very simple. To open a file, simply use the icon or use the.

Navigate to wherever you downloaded. As with saving a file, if you are currently in the. Click on the appropriate file type viewer. This chapter has provided a basic introduction to the SPSS environment. The data editor has. You also created your first data set by creating some. In one gallery. They were left alone with each target for 5 minutes. The data are below; enter them into SPSS. There are many good introductory SPSS books on the market that go through similar mat erial to. There are many others on the market as well, so have a hunt around.

The companion website contains the following Flash movie tutorials to accompany this chapter:. As I got a bit older I used to love exploring. At school they would teach you about maps and. I got lost at a holiday camp once when I was about. He did that a lot when he was 7. Wright makes the analogy of a fine wine: you should. SPSS and other packages make it. The only. The graph is reproduced in Figure 4. You have to do a fair bit of editing to get your graphs to look like this in SPSS but section. Really, they will. The y-axis reflects the maximum of the scale, and this creates the correct.

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Tempting as it is,. On the plus side, he would have a long sticky tongue and if you smoke his venom which, incidentally, can kill a. There are two ways to build a graph: the first is by using the gallery of predefined graphs. We will have a look at building various graphs throughout this chapter rather than trying to.

Most graphs that you are. If you. Note that the variables in the data editor are. Click on this variable in the list and drag. To draw the histogram. You might notice another dialog box floating about making a nuisance of itself if not, then consider yourself lucky,. This dialog box allows you to edit various features of a histogram Figure 4. You can also decide manually how you want to. If you click on then another dialog box appears Figure 4. You can think of a bin as, well, a rubbish bin this is a pleasing analogy.

When you have finished throwing your data into these rubbish bins, you. A histogram is created in much the same way; either SPSS can decide. Our hygiene scores range from 0 to 4, therefore we. All of the scores. Outliers bias the mean. To make our boxplot of the day 1 hygiene. That takes us straight to case Looking at this case reveals a score of First, it shows us. Comparing the males and females we can see they both had similar low scores. The lowest edge of the tinted box is the lower quartile. This range is. In the middle of the tinted box is.

If the whiskers are the. Each circle has a number next to it that tells us. In all of these situations, our starting point is the Chart Builder Figure 4. In this dialog. This gallery has eight icons representing different types of bar chart, and you should select. In all cases he. To plot the means for the two films, select the variable film from the variable list and drag it. The first is that, by default, the bars will display the mean value.

This is fine, but just. Finally, you can ask SPSS. You can also display the standard error the default is to show 2 standard errors, but. Figure 4. This graph displays the mean and the confidence. The graph we. As with the previous example, select arousal from the variable list and drag. As in the previous section, select error bars in the properties dialog box and click on.

I can probably imagine. Load the file Hiccups. Both variables are now highlighted in blue. Again, hold down the. Ctrl key and click on a third variable in the variable list and so on for the fourth. In cases. This box tells us that SPSS is creating two temporary variables. We need to edit some of the properties of the graph. In the left panel. The middle panel is accessed by clicking on X-Axis1 Bar1 in the list. Axis Label.

This label will appear on the graph. Also, we can change the order of our variables. If we change our mind about displaying one of our variables then we can also remove it. The right panel of Figure 4. I have made here is to give the axis a label so that the final graph has a useful description on the. Also note that you can use this dialog box. Mostly you can let SPSS construct the. The moral here is: if you have hiccups, find something.

Cue a. May I suggest that you take better care next time there is a slight gust of wind or. The Chart Builder might not be able to do charts for multiple repeated-measures vari ables,. We all like to text-message especially students in my lectures who feel the need to textmessage. In the Chart Builder select. This variable can be selected in the variable.

It shows that at baseline before the intervention. We could, therefore, conclude that text messaging has a detrimental effect. Line charts are bar charts but with lines instead of bars. Therefore, everything we have just. As ever, our starting point is the. Chart Builder Figure 4. In this dialog box select Line in the list labelled Choose from to.

This gallery has two icons and you should select. How do I draw a graph than their means, or frequencies. The author is a bit verbose, but he is also very thorough, easy to understand, and humorous. The book is required for my graduate course, but anyone can use it learn SPSS; there are many visuals and supporting materials. Verified purchase: Yes Condition: Pre-owned.

Book is very thorough. Some of the idle chatter and jokes take away from the information provided. Some of this is a good thing, but this book has too much. Skip to main content. About this product. Make an offer:. Stock photo. New other : lowest price The lowest-priced item in unused and unworn condition with absolutely no signs of wear.

Will include dust jacket if it originally came with one. Text will be unmarked and pages crisp. Satisfaction is guaranteed with every order. See details. See all 3 new other listings. Buy It Now. Add to cart. New other : lowest price. About this product Product Information Tony C. Brown examines "the inescapable yet infinitely troubling figure of the not-quite-nothing" in Enlightenment attempts to think about the aesthetic and the savage.

Applying regression and correlation. Logistic Regression Module Master of applied Statistics. Another good site is that by Larsen which has a module on logistic regression from a Masters in Applied Statistics. For those of you left wanting more This is an excellent online resource if you want to learn about multi-level modelling. LEMMA starts from the beginning so do not be perturbed if you are new to multilevel modelling. The site provides a good set of online modules, resources and exercises. Home Modules Site Guide. Show top menu bar Skip To Content.

Research Methods and Statistics Resources. Books Muijs, D. Books Field, A. Kinnear, P. SPSS 14 made simple. Hove: Psychology Press. Chapter 11 association and 12 regression are detailed and comprehensive. Online Statistics: An interactive multimedia course of study Another excellent free site. Back to top Regression Resources These resources have a particular emphasis on regression analysis. This provides a very specific guide for applying regression methods.