The share of income from EGS for those employed in it, has ranged between one—third and two—thirds of their total earnings. The institution of minimum wages is an important measure which was intended to strengthen the livelihoods of the disadvantaged.
It is instructive to look at its implementation in the context of employment programmes.
In a similar controversy concerning EGS Wages in EGS are at subsistence leve in Maharastra, the dilemma was whether to pay minimum wage or wages at the market rate which was higher. Employment programmes have failed to influence agricultural wages in Kerala K. Kannan, In a situation where price levels are inordinately rising, employment would fail to support livelihood if rational modification in wage rate does not occur.
As far as strengthening the production base is concerned, these programmes have not exercised a quantitative impact. Moreover, in most states assets created were capital intensive and benefitted the rich more than the poor. Works like soil conservation, watershed development and forestry that create sustainable production base have been neglected. Generally, implementing agencies have taken up ad hoc projects and got them executed at lowest possible wages.
Payments to labour are unnecessarily delayed, thereby failing to provide immediate relief to the workers. Thus the driving current in employment programmes has not yet been turned towards the objective of fostering a sustainable livelihood for the poor. The development model adopted after Independence have displaced people on a massive scale. Apart from this, non—plan projects, urban growth, changing patterns of land use, degradation of habitat, have also led to displacement on a large scale. Besides, the spread of monoculture, liquidation of resource base due to intensive project—based extraction, and processes of secondary displacement have also uprooted many people from their traditional communities.
If all these are taken into consideration the number of displaced would range between 35 to 55 millions. Moreover displacement has mostly struck those people whose livelihoods were always insecure. Tribals and other economically marginal rural population, historically subsisting on the natural resource—base particularly the commons have constituted a significant number of them.
Though tribals made up 7. Displacement has been ruinous for the uprooted people. Women face greater pauperisation and are propelled out to the margins of labour market. The disrupted socialisation process combined with the difficult access to schooling in the new environment stunts the growth of children. Bureaucratic routines inhibit openness and sensitivity in appreciating and acting in the collective interests of victimised communities.
Consequently in most cases, Land Acquisition Act, as amended in only is applied whem it makes the state liable for cash compensation. The seasonal support relationship with eco—system is also not recognised. Even with all limitation there is still staggering backlog of displaced persons awaiting any kind of rehabilitation.
Table 2. The psycho—social trauma and socio—cultural dislocations caused by displacement are abundant: production systems have broken down, ancestral sacred zones or graves have been desecrated, family and kinship systems, informal relationship system of mutual—support have been disrupted, self—management processes and trade relation have been shattered.
Forests in India are not only a matter of bio—diversity, they are also sources of livelihood for a multitude of tribal communities.
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Even though conservation is the new holy cow the Government vows by, its property—oriented conception of forest resources and exploitative bias is betrayed by an array of policies and contradiction of stated objectives. During the same period India lost 4. If one looks at the sequence of policy pronouncements and official responses, though recently there is a professed change of focus , forest dependent people live wherever they are still able to only on sufferance as far as the policy makers are concerned.
All this happens despite the stipulation by the national forest policy that industry should meet its requirement from outside the forests. It ignores even the little official concern shown in the Forest Policy of towards the livelihood needs of the poor and the need for participatory management through joint forest management programmes. The net impact of forest policies and their administration has left the local communities marginalised; disrupting their livelihoods, while at the same time breaking their traditional self—management system.
If forests are one indigenous natural resources, fisheries are yet another very important source of such resources, the over exploitation of which has resulted in a systematic and painful loss of livelihood on the part of a large number of people in hundreds of local communities.
Boosted by a liberal Ex—im policy, shrimp farming developed feverish and unpoliced. Of the 1. Semi—intensive aquaculture requires loads of organic and chemical inputs. At the end of each harvest the waste is flushed out which pollutes the coastline and other receiving water bodies. These effluents affect the coastal fisheries and ultimately are, to an extent, responsible for depletion in catch of traditional fishing in coastal waters. Although no estimate is available, it has negatively affected the traditional occupations of local fishermen.
On the other hand, it increases salinity of surface and ground water. It affects the fertility of lands in the adjacent areas and makes agriculture unsustainable; thereby causing occupational displacement of agricultural farmers. By displacing food crops it dents the situation of food security. As aqua—farming requires capital investment, the ownership of lands steadily gravitates to the cash—rich urban businessmen. Though there has been some investigation into the environmental impact of large shrimp farms, there is little, in terms of sound aquaculture policy taking care of above concerns in place to comprehensively deal with the loss of productive assets and threats to livelihood generated by aquaculture.
Mechanised fishing with aid of trawlers and other modernised fishing gear has affected the entire fisheries sector, which is over 75 million in the marine sector only. Women about half of the sector itself who do the less romantic work of cleaning, preserving and selling of fish, are more affected by the new competitive market. Traditional fisherfolk could not compete with big merchants who have modern preservation and transport facilities in marketing fish women, being in charge of preservation and selling, really feel the pinch.
The diminishing fish resources affect their occupation directly as they have limited or no access to deep sea fishing. Their fishing methods, though ecologically sustainable, could not compete with modern ones in catering to the market. So in the short term they suffer a loss of livelihood.
Also, in the long term, on account of irrevocable depletion of fish resources due to intensive and unecological fishing methods, their source of livelihood will have vanished permanently. In the heat and excitement generated by the export—oriented trade, these issues fail to elicit helfpful policy responses.
Consequently, many sources of productive employment are liquidated and livelihood numberless many are jeopardised. Jawahar Rojgar Yojana An Income Scheme named after the late Jawaharlal Nehru , the biggest ever employment programme sponsored by the government of India GOI , was launched in by merging the two then operational programmes, i. The JRY has the primary objective of generating additional gainful employment for the unemployed and underemployed men and women in rural areas living below the poverty line.
The secondary objective is to create a base for sustainable employment by improving rural economic infrastructure, and creating community and social assets in favour of poor facilitating direct and continuing benefits to them particularly the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. The JRY was operationally dispersed throughout the country without any specific focus on backward areas till late , when it was decided to concentrate on relatively more backward districts. Three new sub—schemes were started under the JRY ambit. The first was the Employment Assurance Scheme.
Broadly designed after the Maharashtra Employment Guarantee Scheme, the EAS seeks to provide days of employment during the lean agricultural season to all those who desire it. As per the shift in JRY policy, the EAS coverage is restricted to development blocks classified under the Drought Prone Area Programme blocks in 23 districts and four union territories.
EAS outlay in —95 per block came to Rs. The Ministry of Rural Development earmarked Rs million for this scheme in — Along with this refashioning, the outlay for JRY has gone up remarkably to Rs However, evaluation studies on its functioning during the last few years show that mismanagement of funds, deviation from envisaged guidelines and dwarfed performance have hamstrung the ambitious programme.
Unless such trends are negated multiplication of schemes and outlay will only amount to wastage of scarce resources. There is a strong apprehension that a lot of resources are unscrupulously siphoned off. Employment elasticities, measured as the ratio of employment growth to the growth of value added have declined from around 0. Changes in production technologies in individual sectors, subsectors and products have tended to reduce the labour requirements per unit of output. Conversely, share of products and secors with high capital output coefficients has increased.
Road building and other construction activities have been favoured. Another serious flaw in JRY execution is overwhelming selection of non—poor family workers despite the stated objective to the contrary. Percentage of employment generated for women was quite low the MRD study puts the all India figure at Another serious shortcoming pointed out by the UP study was that villagers were completely uninformed about any details of JRY funds sanctioned to their Panchayats.
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All schemes envisaging and requiring popular involvement and social control fall flat if people are kept in the dark about them. The JRY was also proved deficient inasmuch as it set about to bypass the local Government bureaucracy, contractors and middlemen. Such schemes have been quantitatively expanded.
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Financial allocations for them have progressively shot up. But there has been no attempt to restructure them with a view to remedying various shortcomings brought to light by different evaluations. There is a bureaucratic tendency to extend and refine guidelines making the administration of these schemes increasingly cumbersome without effecting an improvement in the ground level implementation. The Table below shows that out of one rupee spent in the JRY only 14 paise is likely to reach the poor via effective net wage transfers.
Table 3. O 2 Wage component O 3 Leakage 5. Source: S. The following tables show that high work participation is a concomitant on poverty. It illustrates the fact of poverty induced employment discussed in the first paragraph. Table 4. Table 6. Table 7. Table 8. Employment Elasticities in Major Sectors Sector —73 to —78 —78 to to —88 Agriculture 0.
Source: T. Search this site:. Focal points. National Social Watch Coalition. Human Rights International Treaties. Follow us on. National reports Afghanistan. About About Social Watch. Contact us. Unemployment as Registered Employment exchange statistics in thousands Gross wage transfer 1—2—3.
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Coverage of poor Targeting efficiency. Tranfer to poor 6x7 Transfer efficiency. Employment Categories. Only one female worker. Only one male and one female worker.
Land, Labour And Livelihoods: Indian Women's Perspectives
Employment of workers. Consumer durable goods. Consumer non—durable goods. Registered manufacturing. Transport, Storage and Communications. Its main objective is to analyse the diversification and stratification of gendered migratory streams with regard to skill level, labour market integration, and legal status. In turn a migrant's position in relation to these axes influences access to entitlements and rights. Conceptually, the book builds upon the recent shift in scholarly research on migration, with women-centred research shifting more toward the analysis of gender.
Employment, migration and livelihoods in the Hill Economy of Uttaranchal
Migration is now viewed as a gendered phenomenon that requires more sophisticated theoretical and analytical tools than sex as a dichotomous variable. Theoretical formulations of gender as relational, and as spatially and temporally contextual have begun to inform gendered analyses of migration. The contributions to this book elaborate in more detail the broader social factors that influence migrating women's and men's roles, access to resources, facilities and services.
Empirically, all major regions are discussed, pointing to common trends such as the increasing significance of the regionalization of migration flows as well as some noteworthy differences. Boyd and D. Ho and C. Piper and K. Rojas Wiesner and H. Satterthwaite This volume is available via Routledge Paperbacks Direct, an initiative that makes the best of hardback research publishing available in paperback format.