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For example, strata may be socioeconomic groups, job categories, age groups, or ethnic groups. Cluster sampling involves the selection of groups of sampling units, or clusters. For example, clusters may be schools, hospitals, or geographical areas, and sampling units may be students, patients, or citizens. Clustering is common in multistage designs and area geographic samples. Multiple stages. Then you create a second-stage sample by drawing subsamples from the selected clusters. If the second-stage sample is based on subclusters, you can then add a third stage to the sample.

Then, from the selected cities, households could be sampled. Finally, from the selected households, individuals could be polled. The Sampling and Analysis Preparation wizards allow you to specify three stages in a design. Nonrandom sampling. PPS sampling can also use more general weighting schemes to select units. Unrestricted sampling. Unrestricted sampling selects units with replacement WR. Thus, an individual unit can be selected for the sample more than once. Sampling weights. Therefore, the sum of the weights over the sample should estimate the population size. Complex Samples analysis procedures require sampling weights in order to properly analyze a complex sample.

Note that these weights should be used entirely within the Complex Samples option and should not be used with other analytical procedures via the Weight Cases procedure, which treats weights as case replications.

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The primary types of users are those who: Plan and carry out surveys according to complex designs, possibly analyzing the sample later. The primary tool for surveyors is the Sampling Wizard. Before using the Complex Samples analysis procedures, you may need to use the Analysis Preparation Wizard. Regardless of which type of user you are, you need to supply design information to Complex Samples procedures.

Analysis plan. The plan includes the sample structure, estimation methods for each stage, and references to required variables, such as sample weights. The Analysis Preparation Wizard allows you to create and edit analysis plans. Further Readings For more information on sampling techniques, see the following texts: Cochran, W.

Sampling Techniques, 3rd ed.

New York: John Wiley and Sons. Kish, L. Survey Sampling. Statistical Design for Research. Murthy, M. Sampling Theory and Methods. Calcutta, India: Statistical Publishing Society. Swensson, and J. Model Assisted Survey Sampling. New York: Springer-Verlag. E Optionally, in the Sampling Method step, you can choose a method for selecting items. Otherwise, click Next and then: E In the Sample Size step, specify the number or proportion of units to sample.

E You can now click Finish to draw the sample. Optionally, in further steps you can: Choose output variables to save. Add a second or third stage to the design. Set various selection options, including which stages to draw samples from, the random number seed, and whether to treat user-missing values as valid values of design variables.

Choose where to save output data. Paste your selections as command syntax. You can also specify a label for the stage. Stratify By. Separate samples are obtained for each stratum. To improve the precision of your estimates, units within strata should be as homogeneous as possible for the characteristics of interest. Clusters are useful when directly sampling observational units from the population is expensive or impossible; instead, you can sample clusters from the population and then sample observational units from the selected clusters.

However, the use of clusters can introduce correlations among sampling units, resulting in a loss of precision. To minimize this effect, units within clusters should be as heterogeneous as possible for the characteristics of interest. Clusters are also necessary in the use of several different sampling methods. For more information, see the topic Sampling Wizard: Sampling Method on p.

If the current sample design is part of a larger sample design, you may have sample weights from a previous stage of the larger design. Sample weights are computed automatically for subsequent stages of the current design. Stage Label. You can specify an optional string label for each stage. This is used in the output to help identify stagewise information. Note: The source variable list has the same content across steps of the Wizard. In other words, variables removed from the source list in a particular step are removed from the list in all steps.

Variables returned to the source list appear in the list in all steps. You can navigate the Wizard by clicking on the name of an enabled step in the outline. See the Help for individual steps for more information on why a given step may be invalid. Controls in this group are used to choose a selection method. Some sampling types allow you to choose whether to sample with replacement WR or without replacement WOR. See the type descriptions for more information.

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Moreover, WR methods are available only in the last stage of a design. Simple Random Sampling.

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Units are selected with equal probability. They can be selected with or without replacement. Simple Systematic. Simple Sequential. Units are selected sequentially with equal probability and without replacement. Any units can be selected with replacement; only clusters can be sampled without replacement. They are selected without replacement. PPS Sequential. PPS Brewer. PPS Murthy. PPS Sampford. Use WR estimation for analysis. This allows you to use with-replacement estimation even if the sampling method implies WOR estimation.

This option is available only in stage 1. Measure of Size MOS. Optionally, you can set lower and upper bounds on the MOS, overriding any values found in the MOS variable or computed from the data. These options are available only in stage 1. You can specify an exact sample size or a proportion of units to sample. A single value is applied to all strata. If Counts is selected as the unit metric, you should enter a positive integer. If Proportions is selected, you should enter a non-negative value. Unless sampling with replacement, proportion values should also be no greater than 1.

Unequal values for strata. Read values from variable. Allows you to select a numeric variable that contains size values for strata. If Proportions is selected, you have the option to set lower and upper bounds on the number of units sampled. Size Specifications grid. Variables can be reordered within the grid or moved to the Exclude list.

Enter sizes in the rightmost column. Cells that contain unlabeled values always show values. Click Refresh Strata to repopulate the grid with each combination of labeled data values for variables in the grid. Population size. The estimated number of units in the population for a given stage.

Sample proportion. The sampling rate at a given stage. Sample size. The number of units drawn at a given stage. Sample weight. The inverse of the inclusion probabilities. Some stagewise variables are generated automatically. These include: Inclusion probabilities. The proportion of units drawn at a given stage. Cumulative weight. The cumulative sample weight over stages previous to and including the current one. From here, you can either proceed to the next stage creating it, if necessary or set options for drawing the sample. You can also control other sampling options, such as the random seed and missing-value handling.

Draw sample. In addition to choosing whether to draw a sample, you can also choose to execute part of the sampling design. Stages must be drawn in order—that is, stage 2 cannot be drawn unless stage 1 is also drawn. When editing or executing a plan, you cannot resample locked stages. This allows you to choose a seed value for random number generation.

Include user-missing values. This determines whether user-missing values are valid. If so, user-missing values are treated as a separate category. Data already sorted. Sample data. These options let you determine where sample output is written. Dataset names must adhere to variable naming rules. Joint probabilities. These options let you determine where joint probabilities are written.

Case selection rules. They are useful for constructing the subframe for subsequent stages. E Click Next to continue through the Wizard. Subsequent steps are largely the same as for a new design. See the Help for individual steps for more information. Optionally, you can: Specify stages that have already been sampled.

Key features

Remove stages from the plan. Sampling Wizard: Plan Summary Figure Sampling Wizard, Plan Summary step This step allows you to review the sampling plan and indicate stages that have already been sampled. If editing a plan, you can also remove stages from the plan. Previously sampled stages. If an extended sampling frame is not available, you will have to execute a multistage sampling design one stage at a time.

Select which stages have already been sampled from the drop-down list. Any stages that have been executed are locked; they are not available in the Draw Sample Selection Options step, and they cannot be altered when editing a plan.

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You can remove stages 2 and 3 from a multistage design. E Review the sampling plan in the Plan Summary step, and then click Next. E The individual steps containing stage information are skipped when executing a sample plan. You can now go on to the Finish step at any time. Optionally, you can specify stages that have already been sampled. Control the output in the Viewer. See the Command Syntax Reference for complete syntax information. Chapter 3 Preparing a Complex Sample for Analysis Figure Analysis Preparation Wizard, Welcome step The Analysis Preparation Wizard guides you through the steps for creating or modifying an analysis plan for use with the various Complex Samples analysis procedures.

Before using the Wizard, you should have a sample drawn according to a complex design. E You can now click Finish to save the plan. Optionally, in further steps you can: Select the method for estimating standard errors in the Estimation Method step. Specify the number of units sampled or the inclusion probability per unit in the Size step. You can also provide a label for the stage. Your total sample represents the combination of independent samples from each stratum.

Samples drawn in multiple stages select clusters in the earlier stages and then subsample units from the selected clusters. Sample Weight. Note: The source variable list has the same contents across steps of the Wizard. Variables returned to the source list show up in all steps. For more information on why a given step may be invalid, see the Help for individual steps. WR sampling with replacement. Choosing not to include the FPC for SRS variance estimation is recommended when the analysis weights have been scaled so that they do not add up to the population size.

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The SRS variance estimate is used in computing statistics like the design effect. Equal WOR equal probability sampling without replacement. Unequal WOR unequal probability sampling without replacement. You can specify exact population sizes or the probabilities with which units were sampled. If Population Sizes is selected as the unit metric, you should enter a non-negative integer.

If Inclusion Probabilities is selected, you should enter a value between 0 and 1, inclusive. You selected WR estimation in the Estimation Method step. This is the third stage of the analysis, and the Wizard supports a maximum of three stages. For more information, see the Help for individual steps. Optionally, you can remove stages from the plan.

Remove Stages.

IBM SPSS Complex Samples Demo

Since a plan must have at least one stage, you can edit but not remove stage 1 from the design. Figure Complex Samples Plan dialog box Plan. Joint Probabilities. Chapter 5 Complex Samples Frequencies The Complex Samples Frequencies procedure produces frequency tables for selected variables and displays univariate statistics. Using the Complex Samples Frequencies procedure, you can obtain univariate tabular statistics for vitamin usage among U. Additionally, chi-square and likelihood-ratio statistics are computed for the test of equal cell proportions.

Variables for which frequency tables are produced should be categorical. Subpopulation variables can be string or numeric but should be categorical. E Click Continue. Statistics are computed separately for each subpopulation. This group allows you to request estimates of the cell population sizes and table percentages.

This group produces statistics associated with the population size or table percentage. Standard error. The standard error of the estimate. Coefficient of variation. The ratio of the standard error of the estimate to the estimate. Unweighted count.