The broadcast helped them understand what was happening in the world, especially with the two major operating films. This had an impact on the citizens because the content depicted was merely Nazism in cinema. The nation's values were disrupted where people were expected to follow the iron fist and what was provided on the films rather than what rotated around their way of life and cultural practices. Also, it showed the justification of Germany's invasion of Slovenia. Fritz Kirchhoff was a director who showed anti-British propaganda in his films. Kirchhoff directed Attack on Baku which was filmed in Germany intending to show messages against the British while including aspects of German patriotism.
The nation was already well-read on most of popular German writings of that period. It was the task of Nazi cinema to strategically target the population, in this case the German nation and convince them to visit theaters. The profit from the sales was ever-growing and came in handy for the means of mobilizing the nation. The profitability of the Nazi movie industry receive such a great demand that it operated all the way up until the end of the War, One of the last movies directed during was Kolberg , which gained popularity due to the fact it contained the most convincing speeches for the viewers to keep fighting to the end.
From to , there were 1, feature films produced worldwide of these films had a connection with war. A further 68 films dealt with the allies. The remaining films are split into two groups either the 65 home-front films made which included life under war-time conditions and other occupations such as red-cross or air-raid wardens.
Most of the films in this period were about the enemy and had a propaganda basis. In fact, going to the cinema was such a special occasion because the audience were treated to the entertaiment within dazzling movie palaces. These buildings equated with the power of this industry they not only showed films but they were prime source of news distribution because they held such large audiences.
Most moviegoers had family members participating in the war and were suffering hardships in there daily life and the cinema was an effective form of escapism from reality. The film industry in that era did not solely focus of propaganda but also created psychological support and motivation through its film stars. The theme of war took a popular role in the development of pop music. Artists expressed their feelings of hardships during the war.
Others sang songs that aimed to lift the spirits of the citizens. British singer Vera Lynn , or the Forces Sweetheart, sang popular songs such as " We'll Meet Again " and " The White Cliffs of Dover ", which restored an optimistic outlook for soldiers and families while uplifting Allied spirits during a time of hardship when Nazi Germany was bombing Britain.
Many listeners could relate because of the number of people drafted into the war. Government agencies pushed music producers to record more patriotic and uplifting songs. Smith states that only twenty-seven war-themed songs had reached the top ten charts during the span of the war. This suggests that these patriotic war-themed songs, pushed by the government, did not sell well. Billboard archives suggest that the public preferred escapist and rather lighthearted songs.
Furthermore, as musicians joined the military, larger bands shrunk and often disbanded, creating a trend towards soloists and smaller music groups. Many musicians contributed to the war effort. Musician Irving Berlin assisted in the war effort by creating the "This is the Army" musical, which raised millions by playing on Broadway and for the US troops. Because of the war, approximately 15 million people "crossed county lines" and brought about the spread of different music styles like country music and African-American styles.
Even the war itself influenced the music industry through its technology. The capture of Germany's magnetic tape technology became a staple in music production for independent producers. Magnetic tape sound recording allowed for independent producers to produce high quality sounds without the assistance of major labels. Changes in music correlated to the evolution of dances.
Ballroom dancing gained popularity when people were looking to have a good time. The Grafton Ballroom in Britain was famed for its architecture and interior at the time.
The evolution of music brought about new sounds such as jazz and swing music. These sounds translated to new dances.
Jitterbug dancing grew in popularity. The Jive , which was taken to England by American troops, eventually became a dance of the International style of Ballroom dance. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is an orphan , as no other articles link to it. Please introduce links to this page from related articles ; try the Find link tool for suggestions. December Retrieved December 28, Archived from the original on June 22, You can map on to it any way you want. Try explaining the cold war to kids: it was about a metaphysical geography of Europe that has completely vanished.
But they have no problem grasping what the Normandy landings were about. Why there should be a surge of interest in movies about the war since the 90s' relative trickle is a moot point. For Matthew Sweet, broadcaster and author of The West End Front , it's equally to do with what he calls "a growing sentimentality about the war".
Britain Can Take It: The British Cinema in the Second World War
It's a sentimentality that allows people to pursue a dream of the war, and which enables their fantasies and preoccupations about it. I'm afraid it's a very empty engagement. Quentin Tarantino's Inglourious Basterds , in which Hitler is blown up and a roving band of Jewish soldiers mercilessly take out sneering Nazis, is a key example of this kind of war movie — "a fantasy of how the Holocaust should have worked out", according to Sweet — but there are plenty of others.
The Reader , on some level, is a fantasy that concentration camp guards can be unfairly scapegoated. The King's Speech , for all its virtues as a character study, implies that a single radio broadcast can alter the course of history. The Monuments Men suggests that locating looted artworks is a rambunctious, high-speed activity conducted by drunks and mavericks. Saving Private Ryan — released in and arguably the totemic ancestor of the wish-fulfilment second world war movie — concluded that the US army fought and won the war on its own.
Is it a coincidence that these films achieved a release in the era of regime change, CNN and Call of Duty? Moreover, these films also fulfil one of the basic functions of the second world war movie: to blow every previous second world war movie out of the water, or at the very least, torpedo them below the waterline.
I suspect Steven Spielberg's version of D-day will be the one in people's heads in years' time, in the same way that we think of the Russian revolution through Eisenstein's films. It's almost like a grab to produce the official version.
In fact, we can broadly understand the evolution of the second world war movie as a process of redefining the war's meaning. This is followed by a cut to a statue of William Wallace, the image of the Highlander par excellence , before the camera tilts down and pans left across heaving crowds controlled by policemen and Highland soldiers. Filmed in close-up and in close proximity, it is a rare cinematic glimpse of the awesome power of mechanical, industrial warfare and is somewhat at odds with the majority of the footage — both in this film and in the films as a whole — where the threat of violence often seems remote.
The tank is not only an effective killing machine but also, at the time, a technical novelty that would have appealed to local crowds both in the street and in the cinema. Indicative of the exploratory cinematic forms emerging during this transitional era, Scottish Moving Picture News 32 features more complex editing techniques. First, a child steals into Julian for a closer inspection, followed by a medium and wide-shot of a military band, then a pan across an enthusiastic crowd who are presumably watching the band.
The spatial connection between the three locations is unclear. The intertitle is followed by a sequence of five shots. In the first a group of men clamber aboard Julian, followed by a cut to a crowd scene similar to the one in the last sequence.
Entertainment industry during World War II - Wikipedia
It is again unclear whether the crowd is watching the tank or watching the band. The uncertainty of its gaze is reinforced later when a young boy is shown in close-up, smiling at the camera as he plays a tuba. There follows a cut to a medium-shot of the young girl as she climbs out of the tank and stares directly into camera, and then a cut back to the boy in the same framing. However, as indicated previously, these conventions were not fully-crystallised at the time and for wartime viewers this discontinuity would not have seemed unusual. In providing these films the trade also sought to deepen the relationships between local filmmakers and the British state, a process outlined in the final section.
This section focuses on the activities of one Scottish company, George Green Ltd. Exactly one month before war started George Green advertised the sale of his fairground equipment to concentrate on his ten permanent cinemas, six of which were in Glasgow. George himself died the following year, but the business continued to grow in the hands of his widow, two sons Bert and Fred , and four daughters.
Although well-respected and integrated within the Glasgow cinema trade business sphere, the Greens occupied a relatively marginal social position due to their travelling fairground origins and their Catholic background. The Bioscope credits Green Ltd. Although it has not survived it reportedly showed naval reservists boarding a train for Portsmouth at Glasgow Central station on the Sunday before the declaration of war. The introduction of the Entertainments Tax in ensured that the trade made a direct financial contribution to the war effort. Exhibitors had used their associations for charitable purposes before and George Green was well known for his contributions to Catholic charities, but the company visibly redoubled their efforts during wartime.
During the war years the transition from a variety-based form of show and toward narrative features as the dominant textual and industrial mode was completed. Shooting pre-arranged action rather than actualities allows the filmmakers to utilise different set-ups for the same shot, to shoot the same sequence from various angles or distances and employ some limited camera movements. Combined with emerging editing techniques this resulted in a considerably more polished-looking final product.
This approach appealed to a sense of shared experience, elevated the role of home-front efforts, and highlighted local civilian contributions in connection to the wider struggle. In contrast to the single takes dominant in the above films, Patriotic Porkers contains numerous sequences which employ continuity editing. An establishing shot showing a refuse collection cart and two workers is followed by two sequences in which one of the men collects household waste, both comprised of three separate shots. The first is a medium-shot of a man and woman as she pours the contents of a bowl into a bucket.
This is followed by a close-up of their hands and the bowl as the contents continue to be emptied. The film then returns to the same set-up as the previous medium-shot, as the woman shakes the last of the contents into the bucket. A similar sequence of shots follows depicting another instance of the same process. However, the editing in the second sequence appears to be more poorly executed and has the distancing effect of a jump cut.
He exits the garden through an open gate and heads left. In the next shot the camera is placed slightly to the left of the position in the previous set-up and follows the man as he again walks through the gate thereby creating a sense of temporal discontinuity and heads left to deposit the contents of his bucket in a cart.
Further instances which disrupt what would become the classical viewing experience emerge as the man walks to the cart and passes his male colleague who is looking directly at the camera. This methodical account of a simple linear process, expressed visually using everyday objects, is a good example of filmmakers exercising an early form of continuity editing.
In its didactic approach Patriotic Porkers displays the overt propagandising qualities demanded by the British state as it sought to raise awareness of the contribution that civilians could make to the war effort — in this instance, the gathering of household waste to provide swill for a mass pig-breeding programme aimed at providing additional food for frontline soldiers. While Patriotic Porkers seems to have been shot in Scotland, at least judging by the characteristic tenements on display and the brief appearance of some kilt-wearing soldiers, the desire for wider audience reach ensures that it does not take a local angle.
The actors, while seemingly non-professional, are not characterised as individuals but as types — in particular the housewives, who stand in for the implicit viewer. The aforementioned close-up of the piglet, shots of a large boar vaulting a fence in an effort to escape its sty, even the furtive glances to the camera would all have lightened the tone. Although the film had its first trade show in Glasgow on 1 July it was also screened as part of the cinemotor programme traveling vans organised by the National War Aims Committee.
To support this enormous mobilisation the state needed to find ways to galvanise the home front. At this junction, two decades into its public existence, cinema was being reconfigured as a mass medium through a textual and institutional redefinition of its mode of address, away from the traditions of live showmanship and display that had constituted its early environment. Besides this effort to reach a mass audience the cinema industry, as exemplified by the Greens, was engaged in a project of capitalist market expansion precisely at a moment when Britain was waging a war with its imperialist competitors to defend and increase its own market share.
War brought their efforts together. This article has examined how the textual strategies associated with a cinema of attractions were used to draw an audience for local topical films, and how they were incorporated into more complex narrative structures for broader distribution. Throughout the war cinematic attractions often worked in synergy with propaganda rhetoric, deliberately or not.
The visual appeal of Highland uniforms, Territorial camps, and mechanical novelties such as tanks and aeroplanes was easily recuperated to aid recruitment and fundraising. The localised mode of address and the overt engagement with the apparatus seen in local crowd films fitted less comfortably with a generalising patriotic discourse.
The fear of communism
Under the looming weight of the Great War narrative these instants of agency and self-representation break through, and for a moment it is possible to imagine another cinema, another century, a different world. Maria A. Her work on the emergence of regional film distribution, early exhibition practice, and the use of geo-databases for historical research has been presented at NECS, SCMS, Domitor, and Screen conferences. She has published on Scottish and Colombian cinema history and audiences in Post-Script and Particip tions. Her chapter on showmanship practices in the s was published in Performing New Media, John Libbey, Badsey, S.
Bottomore, S. Toulmin, P. Russell, and S.