To avoid translation ambiguity, each item was translated by professional translators. This was assessed using the four-item scale of De Grood , which was originally developed by Caplan et al. Responses were measured on a 5-point Likert scale, ranging from strongly disagree 1 to strongly agree 5. This was assessed using a five-item scale developed by Netemeyer et al. Given the evidence that work interferes with family life to a greater degree than family life interferes with work Frone et al.
The four-item scale to measure psychological detachment was adopted from the work of Sonnentag and Fritz Every item was rated on a 5-point Likert scale, ranging from fully disagree 1 to fully agree 5. The eight-item job anxiety scale developed by McCarthy et al. Each item was measured on a 5-point Likert scale, ranging from absolutely disagree 1 to absolutely agree 5.
To rule out the potential confounding effects of demographic variables and some work-related background variables, we controlled for gender, age, education, job tenure, position, and marital status. Finally, marital status was divided into unmarried 1 , married 2 , and others 3. For data analysis, SPSS version In conducting the two-step approach to test the mediating effects, as suggested by Anderson and Gerbing , we utilized AMOS version The fit indices of the hypothesized factor model were compared with those of alternative factor models to confirm which better fit the data Mathieu and Farr, ; Cheung and Wong, The second step, viable only after validation through the first step, was to use maximum likelihood structural equation modeling SEM to examine the structural relationships among the study variables.
Common method bias CMB can inflate relationships when the data are collected from a single source Podsakoff et al. Thus, CMB was negligible in our study see Table 3. Before testing our hypotheses, we examined the intraclass correlation coefficient ICC see Table 1. The means and standard deviations of and the correlations between each of the variables are presented in Table 2.
Thus H1, H2, and H5 were each preliminary supported. As the correlations between the control variables and our study variables were either weak or not significant, we do not further consider the effects of control variables in subsequent analysis. Therefore, four latent factors job demands, psychological detachment, job anxiety, and CWBs and nine observed indicators were included in the study. When comparing with item-level data, the advantages of aggregate-level data e. The measurement model was tested by comparing the fit indices between the single-factor model job demands, job anxiety, psychological detachment, and CWBs combined into one factor , 2-factor model job demands, job anxiety, and CWBs on the same factor; psychological detachment on the other , 3-factor model job demands and job anxiety on the same factor; psychological detachment and CWBs as separate factors , and 4-factor model job demands, job anxiety, psychological detachment, and CWBs as separate factors.
In organizational behavior studies, the method explained above has been widely used in prior research Mathieu and Farr, ; Cheung and Wong, We use SEM to examine the mediating effects of psychological detachment and job anxiety and to assess our proposed model. In the original stressor-detachment model, there is no direct effect from psychological detachment to subsequent performance. Thus, we built an alternative Model 1 see Figure 2 , in which the direct path from psychological detachment to CWBs was deleted from our Hypothetical model based on the stressor-detachment model Figure 1.
The original stressor-detachment model Model 1. The alternative model bases on the Model 1 Model 2. To find the most satisfactory model, we then developed another alternative model Model 3 , in which a path from psychological detachment to CWBs was added to Model 2 see Figure 4. Moreover, the factor loading of each indicator was between 0. Hence, all of the indicators are suitable to represent their latent constructs. The ultimate mediation model Model 3.
To determine the casual relationships between our study variables, we also test the reverse model Model 4 see Figure 5. However, the fit indices of the reverse model are unsatisfactory see Table 4. Therefore, the reverse model is not acceptable. The reversed model Model 4. Furthermore, the bootstrapping method was used to test the mediation effects in Model 3. Bootstrapping is the ideal way to test indirect effects as it does not impose distributional assumptions Zhang et al. The most accurate estimation of indirect effects can be obtained by bootstrap sampling.
The results showed that our hypotheses are all verified see Tables 5 , 6 and Figure 4. TABLE 6. Based on the stressor-detachment model, we confirmed that psychological detachment and job anxiety partially and sequentially mediate the relation between job demands and CWBs. Further, psychological detachment mediates the relation between job demands and job anxiety. Compared with the original stressor-detachment model, two additional path coefficients are significant i. This might be explained by CWBs working as both performance and strain reactors Fida et al.
Our research thereby makes several contributions to the stressor-detachment model and CWB literature. Our research has some theoretical implications. The present study also added subsequent performance i. The study moved beyond the limitations of prior research, which has mainly considered the relationships among stressors, psychological detachment, and strain Safstrom and Hartig, ; Pereira and Elfering, Through empirical study, we found that job demands a form of stressor and job anxiety a form of strain have positive effects on CWBs a form of performance , while psychological detachment has a negative effect on CWBs.
These results are similar to those of DeArmond et al. Second, our study extended the existing research on CWBs. Previous research has explained the formation mechanism of CWBs based mainly on the stressor-emotion model: the stressor elicits negative feelings and employees are prone to engage in CWB under their influence Spector and Fox, a. Though some research has examined the relationships among job demands, job-related affect e. This study reveals that CWBs can be explained by job demands and its relationship with psychological detachment and job anxiety.
Thus, we proposed a new perspective to explain the formation mechanism of CWBs by introducing it into the stressor-detachment model, thereby opening a new avenue for further research. Third, we tested the role of job anxiety in the stressor-detachment model. There is only limited research in which job anxiety, as a specific strain reaction, is incorporated in the stressor-detachment model. Through the literature review, we identified that earlier research tends to take fatigue as a strain reaction, but few consider job anxiety. Thus, this study enriches understanding of the antecedent and outcome variables of job anxiety and contributes to existing knowledge about job anxiety by incorporating it as a key part of the stressor-detachment model.
Our results also have several important practical implications.
Current Perspectives on Job-Stress Recovery
First, they confirm that job demands are positively related to job anxiety and CWBs, and negatively correlated with psychological detachment. These relationships should be considered by organizations in seeking to reduce job demands. For instance, job design and performance assessment should be based on the practical working capability of employees, and each should be allocated reasonable tasks.
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Thereby, staff could finish work on time and avoid continuing to work in off-job time. If the job demands cannot be reduced, organizations could create more opportunities for employees to attend training, for example, in setting priorities, time-management skills, and job skills, to help them to work more efficiently Sonnentag et al. According to Rothbard et al. Therefore, to diminish work-family conflict, employees must be permitted to set boundaries between work and family in accordance with their own preference. At the same time, a more segmenting policy such as flextime should be implemented as this would not be detrimental to integrators and may marginally help segmentors Rothbard et al.
Given that psychological detachment influences job anxiety and CWBs, employees should pursue leisure activities during off-job time Sonnentag, , such as exercising or developing new interests Fritz et al. Moreover, before starting work each day, it is helpful for employees to create a list in order of priority of work tasks that need to be completed that day Fritz et al.
In addition, debiasing trainings are the useful strategies to help employees to set priority Ceschi et al. Further, both mangers and co-workers should not be available for and should avoid work-related communication with employees during off-work time. Finally, to avoid negative effects from job anxiety, organizations should select and train employees carefully. For example, the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire should be used to assess the personality characteristic of anxiety when recruiting Chakravarthy and Chandramohan, Our study has several limitations that should be overcome in future research.
Primarily, our study employed a cross-sectional design. Therefore, it would be premature to draw exact conclusions about causality. Although some studies have validated the causal linkage between job anxiety and CWBs Salami, ; Muschalla and Linden, , alternative explanations are difficult to rule out. For instance, in our research, we assumed that employees with high job anxiety tend to engage in CWBs.
Another possibility is that employees are punished for engaging in CWBs, which increases their job anxiety. Thereafter, they may worry about another pay deduction if they break the rules again, hence increasing their job anxiety. Thus, to confirm causal links, longitudinal and experimental studies should be employed in future research. We took some measures to control the effect of CMB during questionnaire design and data analysis. Nonetheless, CMB is a potential limitation. Therefore, some other measurement methods, such as coworker assessment, leader assessment, depth interview, and behavioral observation should be employed in future research.
Third, as our data were only collected from three large, state-owned coal mines in northern China, the generalizability of our findings to other organizations is questionable. There are huge differences in the job characteristics and environment between coal mines and other industries Qing-gui et al. Thus, to enhance the universality of the current conclusions future research should test our model in more diverse industries.
This study was carried out in accordance with the recommendations of ethics committee of China University of Mining and Technology with written informed consent from all subjects. All subjects gave written informed consent in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki.
The protocol was approved by the ethics committee of China University of Mining and Technology. YC designed and drafted the work. SL collected the data. QX revised the manuscript. CH analyzed data for the study. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Ahmed, W. Actual Probl. Interactive effects of perceived time pressure, satisfaction with work-family balance SWFB , and leader-member exchange LMX on creativity.
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