Manual German bombers over Russia: A selection of German wartime photographs from the Bundesarchiv, Koblenz

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Wo stehen wir? Wohin geht der Weg? Munich and New York , —3. Roland, Charles G. Rosenberg, Charles E. Rowse, A. Ruhm von Oppen, Beate ed. Sauerbruch, Ferdinand, Das war mein Leben Munich , Schagen, Udo, and Schleiermacher, Sabine eds. Schlemmer, Thomas, and Woller, Hans eds. Scholz, Michael F. Schroeder, Karl ed. Sebald, W. Senat von Berlin ed. Slusser, R.

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Smith, Jean Edward ed. Clay: Germany — Bloomington, Ind. Spaar, Horst, and Funke, Dietmar eds. Die Entwicklung des Gesundheitswesens in der sowjetischen Besatzungszone, — Berlin , Stannard, David E. Stephan, Alexander ed. Stimson, Henry L. Storelli, Commandant, et al. Taylor, A. Tent, James F. Tetens, T. Timm, Annette F. Tokaev, G. Tutzke, D. Uhlig, Ralph ed. Dickes London , Vollnhals, Clemens ed. Weber, Hermann ed. Weisz, Christoph ed.

Weitz, Eric D. Jahrhunderts Bochum , Wengst, Udo ed.

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Widdowson, Elsie M. Wilke, Manfred ed. Wolfe, Robert ed. Zhukov, Georgi K. Moscow , Ziemke, Earl F. The camp was supposed to be closed completely late in when most of the camp were transferred to Sagan Stalag Luft III but a few of the sick remained to be liberated by the Russians a few months later. The camp was built in September to house Polish prisoners from the German September offensive. The first POWs arrived on 12 September. Some were used for completing the camp construction while housed in tents during the winter.

Others were sent to work on farms. A number of the French were from African colonial regiments and were used for the worst work such as collecting refuse. A new camp for officers, Oflag II-E was created close by and Polish warrant officers and ensigns were transferred to it.

In more prisoners arrived from the Balkans Campaign mostly British and Yugoslavians mostly Serbs. In late summer Soviet prisoners from Operation Barbarossa arrived and were placed in a separate enclosure built south of the main camp. From November to early January American soldiers captured in various operations during the Allied drive eastward arrived.

Most were immediately sent to Arbeitskommandos work details. From February to April Neubrandenburg was a waypoint in the forced march westward of Allied prisoners from POW camps further east. The camp was finally liberated on 28 April when a Soviet armoured division reached Neubrandenburg. In the middle of April most of the prisoners in the camp and in the outlying Arbeitskommandos were marched westward ahead of the advancing Red Army.

Within a few days they were liberated by British troops pushing eastward. In it was established as one of the first Nazi concentration camps, to house German communists. In late September the camp was changed to a prisoner-of-war camp to house Polish soldiers from the September Campaign, particularly those from the Pomorze Army. In December , 1, Polish prisoners were recorded as being there.

At first they lived in tents, throughout the severe winter of , and construction of all the huts was not completed until To make room for them many of the Poles were forced to give up their status as POWs and become civilian slave labourers. The construction of the second camp, Lager-Ost "East Compound" began in June to accommodate the large numbers of Soviet prisoners taken in Operation Barbarossa. It was located south of the railway tracks. In November a typhoid fever epidemic broke out in Lager-Ost. It lasted until March and an estimated 45, prisoners died and were buried in mass graves.

The camp administration did not start any preventive measures until some German soldiers became infected. In August the first American prisoners arrived having been taken prisoner in Tunisia. In April the camp was liberated by the Soviet Red Army although there were plans and some movements? Located at 53 degrees, 41 minutes North, 16 degrees, 55 minutes East in the far North of Germany on the Baltic coast. Located at 53 degrees, 20 minutes, 35 seconds North, 15 degrees, 0 minutes East in the far North of Germany on the Baltic coast.

The camp was established on a military training ground in September to detain Polish prisoners from the German September offensive. For the first few months they lived in the open or in tents during a very cold winter, while they built the wooden and brick huts for the permanent camp. These were followed by Soviet prisoners from Operation Barbarossa in the summer of In September and October Italian prisoners arrived after the Italian capitulation.

The camp was liberated by the Soviet Red Army in mid-April although this was long after most had been force marched out westwards. The count was held up the morning of the march as the MOC Man of Confidence was in negotiation with the Kommandant for the safety of the men who were too sick for the march. Many of the sick and infirmed were left behind in the Lazzarett camp clinic and were transported by rail or truck at a later date. Almost a thousand men struggled into formation. There were about Russians, Frenchmen, Americans and 25 Canadians in the march.

They were marched twenty-five or thirty kilometers that day. Then were put into a barn, under guard, and slept for the night. Every evening the guards would dump out the meal for the day on the muddy earth. Everyone would scramble for what they could get. In the morning, they were given two slices of bread, counted, and the march began again for twenty-five or thirty kilometers until they reached the next appointed village. After two to three days, the column reached Stettin. The sick and the dead were left at Stettin while the majority of the rest were moved on to Stalag IIA Neubrandenberg where they arrived on 7th February, On 25 February most of the remaining prisoners were forced to march westward in advance of the Soviet offensive and endured great hardships before they were freed by Allied troops in April The lower ranks prisoners at this camp fared much better than those in many other camps further south.

They worked predominately on farms and had the possibility to obtain better nourishment. It was relatively easy to escape from a farm, but much more difficult to evade recapture. Prisoners working on farms did not have the essential assistance that was provided in Oflags by teams of dedicated specialists who forged documents and prepared maps.

Without these it was extremely difficult to traverse hundreds of miles past frequent checks by the Nazi police. Gabriel Regnier, a French prisoner, describes his failed attempt with a French companion on 23 March A Polish civilian worker at the farm had helped them by hiding civilian clothes for them. It was a dark night and they successfully reached a freight train that was switching cars at the station that was close to the farm. They successfully hid in one box-car full of boxes. But then the train stopped in Stettin for unloading, they switched to another car loaded with sacks of barley destined for Aachen in western Germany, which they reached four days later.

There again they got out to search for a car going to the Netherlands. Unfortunately the driver of a vehicle noticed two persons moving hesitantly along the train and alerted the military police. Recaptured they were returned to Stargard and spent 24 days in solitary confinement. It could have ended much worse. Noted as having 2 shed like buildings at 53 degrees 26 minutes North, 11 degrees 52 minutes south map reference TC, Parchim had a POW camp during WWI located in this vicinity also. Again, a camp previously used in WWI was located here at 53 degrees 32 minutes North, 11 degrees 6 minutes south map reference T Planning for the camp commenced before the invasion of Poland.

It was designed to hold 10, men, was the largest in the 3rd Military District, and was considered a model for other camps. In mid-September the first Polish POWs arrived, and were housed in large 12 m 39 ft by 35 m ft tents, and set to work building the barrack huts before the winter set in. Once their work was complete the Poles were relocated, and the first inhabitants of the camp were Dutch and Belgian. They only remained there for a brief time before being replaced by 43, French POWs, who arrived in mid, and remained the largest group of prisoners until the end of the war.

They included 4, Africans from French colonial units. The French were joined in by Yugoslav and Russian prisoners, then in late some 15, Italian military internees arrived, though most were quickly dispersed to other camps. In late small numbers of American, Romanian, British and Polish prisoners arrived. Located at 53 degrees 9 minutes North and 12 degrees 10 minues east this camp held Yugoslav, Italians and French the Red cross visited it in early There was also a further 'camp' adjacent called 'Belaria' which was opened in and used to house those suspected of attempting or aiding escape rs.

The camp was adjoined on one side to Stalag VIIIc, the 'other ranks' army camp, although the administration of both camps was entirely seperate. A huge sprawling camp holding up to POWs in 6 separate compounds, by far the largest camp for US fliers in German hands. The evacuation was frightening and arduous to POWs of all compounds, especially to those of the South Compound who made the 40 miles from Sagan to Muskau in 27 hours with only 4 hours sleep. At Muskau they were given a 30 hour delay for recuperation and then marched another 20 miles to Spremberg.

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On 31 January the South Compound men plus men from the West Compound went to Stalag 7A at Moosburg in railway boxcars packed 50 men and 1 armed guard in each boxcar. The trip took two days and two nights. On 7 February the men from the Centre Compound joined them. Opened May 15th , Located at coordinates 53 degrees 56 minutes 41 seconds North, 16 degrees 10 minutes 20 seconds east.

On February 6, , according to Red Cross reports, some 8, men of the camp set out on what would be called the "Black March". The prisoners were given the remaining Red Cross parcels; you could carry as much as you could. The march from Gross Tychow lasted approximately 86 days. They were forced to march under guard about 15—20 miles 24—32 km per day.

There was much zigzagging, to escape the encroaching Soviet Red Army from the east. At one time, they travelled 40 miles, only advancing a few. The treatment was very bad. The sick were mistreated when dysentery and diarrhoea set in. The Germans could not be collaborated with. Some prisoners were bayoneted; others kicked and hit. Shelter was either a barn or under the stars, in the rain, snow, or whatever happened to be. As for the food, a bushel or two of steamed potatoes for a barn full of men was the best ever received at the end of a day.

Often, the food was placed in the barn in the dark of night for the men to get what they could. Clothing was misfit being the most dominant, gathered from what they could; the German government provided no clothing. They carried two blankets, and an overcoat for bedding. Water often contaminated POWs drank from ditches beside the road or ate snow when available. Using cigarettes, watches, rings or whatever they had to trade with the farmers along the way, for food.

However in doing so risking the farmers and the POWs' lives. Pneumonia, diphtheria, pellagra, typhus, trench foot, tuberculosis and other diseases ran rampant among the POWs.

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Acts of heroism were virtually universal. The stronger helped the weaker. Those fortunate enough to have a coat shared it with others. The Germans sometimes provided a wagon for the sick. However there seldom were horses available, so teams of POWs pulled the wagons through the snow.

When a wagon was not available and a POW fell out along the road, a German guard would drop back and a shot would be heard. The guard would then come back into formation alone. Many camps on the eastern edge of Germany were combined into one large camp there. The treatment was a repetition of previous camps, with the exception of food, of which there was virtually none. The treatment was a little worse. No beds or bedding in the buildings. The prisoners and the Germans as well, knew liberation was close at hand. The sounds of the encroaching American artillery could be heard getting louder and louder at this camp.

When the sound of Allied artillery grew closer, the German guards were less harsh in their treatment of POWs, because the prisoner roles may soon be reversed. This last march lasted approximately three weeks; but was just as harsh as the previous march except for the treatment by the Germans, which was somewhat better, perhaps because the guards knew the war was lost and their own very futures would depend on how they had treated those in their care. There was still little or no food available, and the pace was much slower, advancing miles a day. As with a lot of German POW camps originally this was a much smaller camp based at the ex Hitler Youth hostel set up in the castle and transformed between an officers camp only then into a stalag with all the satellite work camps I have listed here.

Several single story stone buildings here near the Village of Erika, about British POWs worked nearby at a local Briquette factory, there was also a large mine in this area. It was rare in that the camp was not a traditional POW camp with central imprisonment facilities but more of a processing centre. Headquarters of this camp was situated away from the main camp and next to Torgau railway station, only 21 British and 2 US POWs were held here, and mainly used to assist the administration of the work camps in the area. Situated near Lauchammer between a foundry and a gun finishing factory, no information on POWs held.

In a stone building in Bohringen yards from an ammunition factory! The prison camp had been constructed on the site of a former German military camp that had once billeted German cavalry troops and their horses. The red brick stables were converted to barracks to house prisoners when the site was converted to a POW camp in October Additional wooden barrack huts were also constructed on the grounds, to accommodate the camp's growing prisoner population.

The sprawling prison complex was divided into compounds. The perimeter of the each compound was secured by a double barbed-wire fence, fifteen feet in height, on top of which ran a high-voltage wire. The space between the two fences was a tangled mass of barbed-wire. On the prisoners' side of the fence, a wire ran parallel with the fence, staked to the ground approximately ten feet from the fence, six to eight inches above the ground.

Any man who stepped between the wire and the fence was shot on sight. Every so many yards along the fence was a guard tower, fully armed and manned. The first prisoners detained at the camp had been Poles, taken captive during the German invasion of Poland in As the war progressed, prisoners of other nationalities arrived at Stalag V-A. By the time of the camp's evacuation in April , Allied prisoners of every nation at war with Germany were present within the camp. The largest population present within the camp was Soviet, followed by the French, Belgian, Dutch, British and Commonwealth, Italian, and American prisoners were also present in large numbers.

In July William Ash RCAF organised a tunnel that was designed to get 50 men out, 7 managed to escape, all we recaptured shortly afterwards however. The main camp was in Malschbach in Baden-Baden and was founded in November In February , the new headquarters of the camp was opened in Offenburg. Operating throughout the war from holding mostly Soviet POWs in near death-camp conditions. Most prisoners were used in coal mining work in the Ruhr valley.

On 19 January , 1, prisoners marched out of camp in bitter cold. They crossed a bridge over the river Oder on 21 January, reached Goldberg on 5 February, and were loaded onto a train. The camp covered an area of 35 hectares 86 acres. It served also as a transit camp through which prisoners, including officers, were processed on their way to other camps. At some time during the war, prisoners from every nation fighting against Germany passed through it. At the time of its liberation on 29 April , there were 76, British prisoners in the camp, with officers.

Many others were billeted in Arbeitskommando working in factories, repairing railways or on farms. As Germany collapsed in the spring of , it became the final gathering place for 7, officers and 6, enlisted men moved in from other POW camps. At this same location there had been a prisoner camp during the Franco-Prussian War of In January , as the Soviet armies resumed their offensive and advanced into Germany, many of the prisoners were marched westward in groups of to in the so-called Death March. Many of them died from the bitter cold and exhaustion. The lucky ones got far enough to the west to be liberated by the American army.

The unlucky ones got "liberated" by the Soviets, who instead of turning them over quickly to the western allies, held them as virtual hostages for several more months. Many of them were finally repatriated towards the end of though the port of Odessa on the Black Sea. There were as many as different work parties Arbeitskommando to various factories and other locations from this camp.

Kazimierz is in the centre of Krakow: the old Jewish quarter including the area when Oskar Schindler's factory was located. The camp was created in as the base camp for a number of work-camps Arbeitskommando for prisoners of war working in the mines and industries of Upper Silesia. By early they housed 7, prisoners from Belgium, France, Poland and Yugoslavia. Because of these organizational and number changes there is considerable confusion in accounts of prisoners, even in official German records. In general, the conditions in the main Teschen camp and in all the sub-camps were deplorable.

The Czech people in the villages and towns, through which they passed, passed food and clothing to them. Many prisoners managed to escape and were sheltered in private homes. The men were marched along country roads towards the Oder, first north towards Dresden, then when the Germans changed their mind, south towards Bavaria, eventually reaching Stalag XIII-D near Nuremberg. Physical and sanitary conditions were very poor, and of the estimated , Soviet prisoners who passed through the camp, about 40, died of starvation, mistreatment and disease.

The main camp was in a former brewery in a suburb of the town with a few large brick buildings up to 3 storeys high. Placed on swampy ground,with a damp, cold climate, it is one of the most notorious prisoner-of-war camps. Among the Italian prisoners, were mostly soldiers who did not surrender to the German army after the Cassibile armistice The armistice with the Allies where the Italian forces changed sides. They were moved to a different location closer to Cuxhaven, to Westertimke, in The camp was divided into three sections when liberated.

The first contained Allied prisoners in unsatisfactory conditions, but generally in compliance with the International Red Cross Convention. Soviet prisoners, without the Convention's protection, were in substantially worse conditions. In the third section were 8, civilian prisoners in appalling conditions, described in the Army medical history as "utterly horrifying"; "everywhere the dead and dying sprawled amid the slime of human excrement.

The British forces XXX corps advancing through this area had been aware of the POW camp but, until two escaped British Secret Service men reached them they were unaware of several thousand political prisoners in a separate compound. These were in desperate conditions and it was decided to liberate the camp immediately. The local German forces refused free access to the camp, so an assault into the area was made by the Guards Armoured Division and the camp was liberated on April 29, Army medical units were detached to deliver medical attention.

The military authorities decided to conscript local German civilian women to assist with the rescue and clean up work. Inmates were cleaned and transferred to an improvised hospital outside the camp and thence to convalescence camps. The camp was burned between May 16 and May 25 and the last patients left the hospital on June 3. In September it was used to house British civilian internees and Polish prisoners from the German September offensive. For lack of huts they were mostly housed in tents. June - ca 26, French and ca 17, Belgian soldiers taken prisoner during the Battle of France arrive.

In July they were followed by Soviet prisoners from Operation Barbarossa housed in the open in a separate enclosure. September - Italians interned after the Allied Armistice with Italy arrived.

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Like the Soviets they were not accorded the protection of the Third Geneva Convention and were housed next to them. October -soldiers from the Polish Warsaw Rising came, including over 1, women soldiers and officers. March and April - about 8, Concentration camp prisoners are brought here from the Neuengamme concentration camp and placed in the enclosure that had been Marlag.

May The camp was built to house Belgian and French enlisted men captured in the Battle of France; initial count: July About 20, Soviet prisoners captured during Operation Barbarossa arrived. They were housed in the open while huts were being built.

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By the spring of an estimated 18, had died of hunger and disease, mainly typhus fever. April Part of the camp was turned into a hospital for POWs. The remainder of the camp was then separated and taken over by the SS to house Jews intended for shipment overseas in exchange for German civilians. In the Wehrmacht began to build a large military complex close to the town of Bergen in what was then the Province of Hanover and the barracks were completed in The workers who constructed the original buildings were housed in camps near Fallingbostel and Bergen, the latter being the so-called Bergen-Belsen Army Construction Camp.

However, after the German invasion of Poland in September , the Wehrmacht began using the huts as a prisoner of war camp. The camp of huts near Fallingbostel became known as Stalag XI-B and was to become one of the Wehrmacht's largest prisoner of war POW camps, holding up to 95, prisoners from various countries. This installation was significantly expanded from June , once Germany prepared to invade the Soviet Union, becoming an independent camp known as Stalag XI-C It was intended to hold up to 20, Soviet POWs and was one of three such camps in the area. By the end of March , some 41, Soviet POWs had died in these three camps of starvation, exhaustion and disease.

By the end of the war, the total number of dead had increased to 50, When the POW camp in Bergen ceased operation in early , as the Wehrmacht handed it over to the SS, the cemetery contained over 19, dead Soviet prisoners. Hammelburg was a large German Army training camp, set up in After it was a training camp and military training area for the newly reconstituted German Army. In May the camp was established in wooden huts at the south end of the training ground.

As was usual for Stalags, many of the prisoners were located in Arbeitslager "Work camps" on farms or adjacent to factories or other industrial operations. The Stalag served as the base for distribution of International Red Cross packages and mail. A Lazarett hospital cared for prisoners that were sick or had been injured in industrial accidents or air-raids. A number of enlisted men and NCOs were housed in the adjacent Oflag to provide necessary services.

American soldiers that had been captured during the Battle of Normandy arrived in June-July , and more form the Battle of the Bulge in January In March a large group of prisoners arrived in deplorable condition after marching the miles from Stalag VIII-D in severe winter conditions. The camp was liberated by Combat Command B of the U. In September an Internment Camp for enemy civilians was created within the buildings of the Sturmabteilung SA camp at the rally grounds.

Within a couple of months, the civilians were moved out and prisoners from the invasion of Poland arrived. From May , after the invasion of Norway and the Battle of France, prisoners arrived in large numbers, until they totalled , from all occupied countries, except Britain. British prisoners were held in separate camps all over Germany. Only those remained who were already employed in local industry and were housed in individual Arbeitskommandos. In June the massive influx of Soviet prisoners from Operation Barbarossa began. In August the camp was severely damaged during an Allied air-raid.

Miraculously only two Soviet prisoners were killed in the camp. However, in this and subsequent bombing attacks, many prisoners were killed in individual Arbeitskommandos. The camp was built by forced labour. It grew quickly from a few tents to a large POW camp with concrete buildings for the German officers and guards, and 40 large wooden barracks for the prisoners.

The POW population in Stalag XVII B was around , with up to 40, in the camp proper and another 60, prisoners outside the camp assigned to Arbeitskommando Work Detail groups to provide labour for nearby farms, factories and businesses. The captured Polish soldiers arrived first, then the French and Belgians in June Logistical problems meant that this part of the camp was administered by the Luftwaffe, the rest of the camp being under the Wehrmacht.

Some prisoners were even billeted to live with the local Austrian families. Fraternization between local people and prisoners was strictly forbidden, although it certainly happened. Prisoners were separated by nationality, and were intentionally kept from communicating with any other nations POWs this was common in most POW camps however. Punishment of prisoners was severe, particularly after July when the SS took over jurisdiction of camp security although did not place guards generally US prisoners who did not follow regulations or tried to escape were sentenced to as much as a month in a special solitary confinement building, Russian POWs fared worse and were generally killed either immediately or worked to death at the nearby Mauthausen KZ.

The POWs who were working outside of the camp were simply left there and allowed to leave. The Russian POWs fared far worse: in a common policy were sent to work camps and treated as traitors for surrendering. In March , the Wehrmacht began constructing the camp in the northwest of Austria, between Innsbruck and Salzburg, the nearest railway station was Bishopshofen.

The prisoners of war - mostly from France and the Soviet Union - had to perform forced labour in nearby factories and in agriculture. The camp itself was large, but it was split up into nationalities, British, Poles, Indians, and Russians. The British part was quite small. The perimeter fence was electrified and there was also two searchlight towers that covered the exercise yard. It opened in the spring or early summer of , operating until the end of the war. Conditions initially were very poor, with more than 1, men accommodated in tents while huts were being constructed. There was an outbreak of typhus in early However the situation improved as the war went on.

Escapes assisted by Yugoslav Partisans became increasingly common, with most escapers being led south to the Partisan base and airfield at Semic in Bela Krajina.

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  • Stalag XXa also known as Stalag , and It was not a single camp, being split into several compunds each autonomous to some degree. It contained as many as 20, men at its peak, although up to 60, were incarcerated there at one time or another. About 14, men are buried there.

    It contained POW camps for non-commissioned officers and other ranks. The designation was later transferred to Oerbke near Fallingbostel. The main camp was located in a complex of fifteen forts that surrounded the whole of the city. The forts had been built at the end of 19th century to defend the western border of Kingdom of Prussia. In September some of the forts were used as POW camps for Polish prisoners, specifically those captured after the surrender of the Polish fort at Westerplatte at the mouth of the river Vistula and on the Hel Peninsula.

    In June additional forts were added to the camp to accommodate British soldiers. The first to arrive were men from the Allied campaign in Norway. In and Soviet prisoners arrived. At the peak there were about 10, prisoners at the camp. However many of them were located in sub-camps. The camp was liberated on 1 February by the Soviet Army. The POWs were hired out to military and civilian contractors. In the case of farm work, this was often carried out on state farms. Some of these sub-camps were not the traditional POW camps with barbed wire and guard towers but merely accommodation centres.

    The first HQ was in Fort 17, but during the first half of , the camp authorities were moved to a two-storey house, now in Okolna Street, opposite Fort Stalag 20A was enlarged in the second half of , from Torun-Podgorza in the direction of Glinki. The 7 forts above which comprised Stalag were also administered by Stalag 20A.

    Originally, Stutthof was a civilian internment camp under the Danzig police chief. In November , it became a "labour education" camp, administered by the German Security Police. Finally, in January , Stutthof became a regular concentration camp. The original camp known as the old camp was surrounded by barbed-wire fence. It comprised eight barracks for the inmates and a "kommandantur" for the SS guards, totalling , square metres.

    In , the camp was enlarged and a new camp was constructed alongside the earlier one. It was also surrounded by electrified barbed-wire fence and contained thirty new barracks, raising the total area to 1. A crematorium and gas chamber were added in , in time to start mass executions when Stutthof was included in the "Final Solution" in June Mobile gas wagons were also used to complement the maximum capacity of the gas chamber people when required.

    The Germans used Stutthof prisoners as forced labourers. Others worked in local brickyards, in private industrial enterprises, in agriculture, or in the camp's own workshops. In , as forced labour by concentration camp prisoners became increasingly important in armaments production, a Focke-Wulf aircraft factory was constructed at Stutthof. Eventually, the Stutthof camp system became a vast network of forced-labour camps; Stutthof subcamps were established throughout northern and central Poland. The major subcamps were Thorn and Elbing.

    The training and selection by Abwehr II and the German Army took place during the period from The camp was eventually dissolved, and its attendees were sent to fight on the Eastern Front, or interned in concentration camps after Originally a hutted and tented camp with a double boundary fence and watchtowers set up in the Great War. It ws in poor condition by the time British, Poles and Serbs were held here in An administration block including a hospital was erected in the latter part of , mainly by prisoner labour.

    By a theatre had been built. POWs were sent out to labour in nearby farms, sawmills, factories, goodsyards and cutting ice on the river Vistula. A huge camp with many compounds and work sites away from the main camp, in fams and factories, partially within the old castle of Malbork. The likely centre for the main part of the camp was in Willenberg, 3km south of the catle on the river Nogat. POWs held in this camp were able to clearly see the destruction of the nearby 5km Focke Wulf aircraft factory in , which completely destroyed the plant.

    On the eastern, right, bank of the River Warter, near to the present day St. Roch bridge, stood Fort Rauch, the most southern of the right bank fortifications. Although partially demolished during the s, it was used to accommodate about men. There is no overcrowding and the rooms are not so large that they become noisy when filled with prisoners. Other rooms were used as a common room and theatre. After the war Fort Rauch was completely demolished and a college now stands on the site. Stalag Saint-Denis, Paris France.

    Johann Salzburg, Austria. Stalag Oerbke Near Fallingbostel Prussia. This was a forced labour camp located some 22 miles from the city of Lubin and was used as a German army camp from until They were employed building new barracks and a water supply. At the beginning of almost 1, POWs died daily.

    Up to 22, prisoners who had died or been murdered, were buried in 32 mass graves within the local area of the camp. In October the camp was repopulated with Jews and run by the infamous Amon Goth Later the commandant of Plaszow KZ —concentration camp this had many thousands of Jews brought here from the Warsaw Ghetto, and these were the Jewish families men, women and children who were working for various German run firms in the locale, particularly the Toebbens uniform factory. World War 2 Photo Album Number 2. World War 2 Photo Album Number 6. Paperback; good in lightly faded and creased card covers.

    Hardback; very good in yellowed and price-clipped dustjacket. By: Phillips, C. Publisher: White Lion Publishers: Hardback; light foxing to edge of pages otherwise good in scuffed creased dustjacket. Publisher: Robert Hale: Hardback; very good in creased dustjacket. The author's war memoirs of life on the front line with a MASH unit in Europe, from until the end of the war.

    Hardback; very good in faded and chipped dustjacket. By: Petrova, A. Publisher: Richard Cohen Books: Hardback; very good in very good dustjacket. Publisher: W. Hardback; very good in scuffed dustjacket. By: Peters, M. Publisher: Brendon Publishing: Revised, Limited Edition. First published - this revised and enhanced edition includes three new Annexes and a revised Nominal Roll. Hardback; indentation to edge of pages otherwise very good in lightly creased dustjacket. First edition. Signed by one of the authors - Luuk Buist.

    Illustrated; pages View more info. Publisher: R. James Bender Publishing: Volume Two. Hardback; edge of pages a little yellowed otherwise very good in lightly scuffed boards. Volume One. Hardback; bookshop sticker to front paste-down, wrinkle and blemish to edge of gloss pages, otherwise good in faded pictorial boards.

    By: Persson, S. Long, G. Publisher: Frontline: