I wish in this essay to peer through the Latin American looking glass, or abertura , to see what light may be shed on the ongoing struggle to democratize the South Korean political system.
Guillermo O'Donnell - Wikiwand
In Latin America the richest literature on the problems and prospects of democratization emerged along with a more successful decompression of authoritarian regimes with exceptions, like Chile than has yet occurred in Korea or Taiwan. So, it is a literature that may hold comparative insights for East Asia. Moreover, the Latin American field has been a model of world theory merging with home-grown theory and practice, each influencing the other.
This is a relief to someone from a field whose leading lights describe the economic prowess of the people they study as miraculous that is, unbelievable and who find episodic democratization equally odd, and worthy of yet more self-revelatory genuflection.
I will first assess the rise and apparent demise of the Latin American dictatorships, then question the diagnosis and cure suggested by several prominent Latin Americanists, and finally proffer an alternative explanation that I think illuminates both the Korean and Latin American cases. South Korean authoritarianism or what I have called its bureaucratic-authoritarian industrializing regime shared many similarities with the recent Latin American experience.
Haggard and Kaufman, Chapter 2. These examples are discussed more fully in Chapter 5. Schmitter and Laurence Whitehead eds. For some figures, which are not wholly consistent, see Haggard and Kaufman pp. This is argued at some length in Haggard and Kaufman, Part One. Amos Perlmutter, Modern Authoritarianism.
Modernization and bureaucratic-authoritarianism; studies in South American politics
Haggard and Kaufman pp. This did not apply to Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, but they were, chiefly for political reasons, still on the margins of the dynamic engine of global economic growth. Fernando H.
For one discussion of this, see Karen L. On Greece, see P. Southern Europe ; Howard R. Penniman ed.
Latin America. Also Roberto Aizcorbe, Argentina. The Peronist Myth. See Huntington, Third Wave Comparative Perspectives, pp. It may be that the experiences of Portugal and Spain stimulated pressures for democratization in the South American countries because of their common cultural ties and the important symbolic role that the European metropoles played in Ibero-American culture. But see the discussion in Collier. Karen L.
Dix, pp. For a discussion of single party regimes, see Gary D.
Wekkin et al. On military regimes, see Eric A. Nordlinger, Soldiers in Politics.
- The Transformation of Chinese Socialism.
- Garland of Gold: Early Kagyu Masters in India and Tibet.
- CQ Press - Bureaucratic Authoritarianism.
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On the nature of the Spanish regime, see Juan J. The military was clearly a subordinate element in Spain. Charles G.
Latin America , p. Southern Europe. Also Constantine P. Danopoulos ed. There is not a large literature on this sort of regime, but for some discussion, see for example, Robert H.