The economic revitalization refers to a strategy that aims to create a vibrant economy in the old historical districts and economically disadvantaged regions.
Moreover, the development of commercial and business centers in the declining segments of the city centers significantly contributed to the vibrant economic environments. The rehabilitation process includes different types of interventions ranging from the territory and urban areas to the building itself. The beginning of urban rehabilitation projects in the built environment in western countries dates back to the s.
As stated by Weaver, there are two ways of applying or making use of the urban renewal. The first one refers to the interventions such as slum clearance and urban redevelopment.
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Constructing highways, establishing public works, and also the demolition and construction activities transform the physical structure of cities. The urban renewal projects fitting to this type have been widely put into practice between the industrial period and WW II [ 9 ].
The second use is urban regeneration programs for urban rehabilitation, which are financed by local and private funds. The second type of urban renewal projects has been widely applied, especially in the s. The shifts in economies from the liberal to the neo-liberal policies increased the value of the city centers. The dominant approach of urban policies in the s was the economic development based on the sustainability approach with the project based urban renewal. In the recent years, the renewal is understood as a more controlled process that is carried out via different projects and strategies [ 28 , 29 , 30 ], whereas the regeneration or revitalization is explained as more spontaneous process taken place prevailingly in Central and Eastern European cities in the context of market-led urban development and slight intervention of public authorities [ 31 , 32 , 33 ].
Project-based projects, which are public-sector led and later partnership-based, are designed to capitalize on those sectors of economy which have growth potential [ 34 ]. The aforementioned process was a consequence of the market-based structure of the project-based urban renewal approach.
In fact, the market-based urban renewal emerged after the political transformation and the emergence of market-based economies especially This segment refers to a large group consisting of a great variety of interventions with changing patterns of objectives, stakeholders, financial systems and political willingness, but characterized by some common elements, especially the extension of private financing and the relatively weakness of urban planning and regulation.
This fact does not exclude the presence of the programs incorporating the role of the public sector. The planned patterns of the urban renewal have two important common characteristics. First, all of the interventions were applied in parallel with the market-based interests and the main outcome that was expected was the increased attractiveness for the city or the neighborhood. So, gentrification was inevitably a result. There was no doubt that these processes were differentiated every countries.
For example, market-based urban regeneration in the Eastern-Central European countries was related to the transition of these countries and cities from a stat led system to a decentralized and market-oriented system. The most important of these processes was the reform of the housing system implemented in all countries, but there were only minor differences in character and timing.
As a consequence of the decentralization and privatization, the housing stock, which is a basic element of urban renewal, was depleted.
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The house ownership increased everywhere and public rental diminished. This development has a particular importance regarding urban renewal, and run-down inner city areas were affected in a specific way. While a growing number of inhabitants became owners of their housing, they often had no further capacities to contribute to the renewal of the common parts of the condominiums.
However, they actually have no capacity to support the housing renovation. It can also be stated that this approach may be seen as the consequence of the economic weakness of the local governments. In the literature, the property-led regeneration practices refer to the prestigious projects having outstanding architectural and functional features, as well as the economic expectations they create [ 35 ].
The property-led regeneration significantly transforms the urban form on the specific decayed or deteriorated site and shares the same parcel units while neglecting social and economic sustainability at all. The property-led regeneration involves the regeneration of an inner-city area by changing the image of the area, improving the environment, attracting private investment and improving confidence for further investment.
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The main task of the public administration in property-led regenerations, which are led by the private sector, is described as the provision of a platform, coordination in capital stocks and investments, and efficient organization of local institutions. The task of coordination is suggested to bring together central government, related public institutions and local administration [ 37 ]. Despite the positive aspects of property-led regenerations from the aspect of economic development, the necessity of enhancing the role of inhabitants of deprived areas in the local economy is also criticized.
On the other hand, the economic focus of the problem is frequently criticized because it causes an uncontrolled development [ 36 ]. The area-based regeneration refers to the redevelopment of a neighborhood that has integrity in its structure. The main objective here is to develop a program combining the physical, economic and social aspects of the physically degraded and economically disadvantaged neighborhoods. The property-led regeneration is an economy-based approach; however, the area-based regeneration concept initiated numerous programs and policies until the s in many of the European countries particularly in France, the Netherlands, and the UK.
The intention to bring physical, social and economic gain at the same time, the area-based regeneration programs have generally failed in achieving this goal [ 38 ]. In recent years, it was possible to identify a shift in the political discourse since the policy-makers and practitioners became interested in facilitating the involvement of local people in the process of developing the area-based regeneration initiatives because it is understood that the renewal begins from a proper understanding of communities. Furthermore, it is also clear that, even when the policy-makers and practitioners tried to employ a more bottom-up and community-centered approach in regeneration, the necessities on local administrations and other partners to incorporate the local society provided neither the time nor the resources to support this involvement.
There are numerous different forms of the area-based policies. The most frequently seen type is a top-down mixture of different types of physical, economic, social interventions. Another type, which gained a place in the s, was characterized with the efforts made in order to increase the role of local residents.
The massive immigration from rural areas to big cities of Turkey began as a consequence of the industrialization. The increase in the population of metropolitan areas has reached high levels and the urbanization pressure has increased. Urbanization process started in a short time and the demand for urban land and housing increased to a very high level.
As a result, especially housing needs of increasing population has been the most important agenda. These developments caused the urban renewal to the agenda and then the urban landscapes changed because of these practices Table 2.
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Since the s, the far-reaching administrative changes of the new era foreshadowed the upcoming urban developments. However, many trials have been failed until the s. After that new strategies and approaches have been embraced in order to fix squatting and urbanization problems. This nation-state led policy change had a significant consequence for the cities of Anatolia as they were able to nurture their export base and reach new international markets. At the same time, increasing decentralization efforts, again initiated by the nation-state, granted larger resources and greater responsibilities to the municipal governments.
Thus, the local actors in the Anatolian cities gained increasing recourse to the market-based practices benefiting more from the market-based instruments of re-zoning urban land. The role of the State in the formation of the land and property market, its major role in designating and implementing the urban renewal projects, and its authority of determining the terms and conditions of the projects without allowing the participation of other parties define the current focus of urbanization as state-led urban development [ 21 , 39 ].
The period of the s constitutes a milestone in terms of changing the public response to the urban regeneration. The previous objectives provision of housing, public amenities, and specific emphasis to the people having a low level of income were put aside and the economic growth measured by the concentration of private investment became the sole criterion of the success for urban revitalization.
By the s, the partnerships between local authorities and private sector arose. The urban renewal projects are implemented not only in slum areas but also in areas that are sensitive to natural hazards. Until , there was no general law enacted for the urban renewal projects. The urban renewal projects were applied either region-specific laws or Law No.
The urban renewal projects were applied by the authorized agencies. According to Article 73 of Law No. The current law applied to the urban renewal projects is Law No. In order for an area to be declared as urban transformation and development area, one or several of aforementioned criteria shall be found within the borders of municipal or neighboring borders.
The İzmit earthquake was the crucial point for the urban renewal projects in Turkey. The government aimed to identify high-risk areas that are sensitive to possible natural hazards and re-arrange building stock that is out of standards. The government, private sector, and real estate investment trusts have attention on illegal and non-standard slums in city centers [ 40 ]. After van earthquake, the government took serious steps for demolishing illegal buildings and regenerating old ones; therefore Law No. The law takes the earthquake risk as base and it addresses the renewal of buildings, which are in danger of an earthquake.
The law defines the implementation processes and tools for both property- and area-based regeneration projects. Law No. The law simplifies the process of demolishing of a risky building and constructing a new one. Since the entry of the Law No. To date, due to their widespread effects on the socio-cultural and physical texture of the city and the project-based renewal projects were widely discussed. While the existing buildings are renewed through the property-led renewal, a significant transformation is also observed in the residential areas from the aspects of physical, social and economic environmental characteristics, as the overall effect of these implications.
The urban renewal projects are generally put into practice in order to improve the unplanned and problematic areas, occupied public lands, regions under disaster risks, and cultural and historic areas surrounded by the illegal settlements. It can be stated that the project areas are generally located around the city centers, where the land is of relatively higher value.
In Turkey, the urban renewal projects were put into practice in order to convert the illegal squatter settlements into the well-planned modern commodities via the Housing Development Administration of Turkey and private corporations. Because, the squatter housing areas and old-historical quarters of cities do not only cause transformation in the physical structure of cities but they also affect the social, economic and environmental dynamics in the built environment.
The municipalities with squatter or illegal established housing areas within their boundaries make use of the urban transformation and regeneration projects in order to enhance the living conditions and physical built environment with the standards of a contemporary lifestyle in transforming aforementioned areas into the prestigious regions [ 41 ]. There are two main alternative approaches to implementing the model: a demolishing the illegal settlements, constructing new houses in the same area, and allocating them to the right holders, and b constructing new houses in a different area to transfer the right holders living in the upgrading area [ 42 ].
The investment in urban land and the formation of a speculative land market had an important effect on the urban economies and the development of new urban projects. The urbanization plan was designed on the basis of the idea of deindustrializing the metropolitan centers, which are intended to serve as the bases of the finance and service sectors.
This laid the foundation of the state-led regeneration projects in the old industrial districts and working-class neighborhoods, as well as the gentrification of the neighborhoods located at the city centers and the megaprojects including gigantic shopping malls, high-rise office buildings, gated residential communities, and luxury condominiums. As the urban land became highly commoditized, the regulations related with the land market became an important asset of governments in Turkey. The state has become one of the most important actors in the market, directing the privatization of state-owned lands, providing land for urban development projects, preparing legal grounds for new investments and announcing the fields of urban renewal and development projects [ 43 ].
The city of Kayseri, where the first practices of urban planning activities in Turkey were initiated and which remained at the forefront of the planned development process since the proclamation of the Republic, was selected as the study area. After the defeat of Ottoman Empire, the Turkish Republic was founded in In this period, the main purpose of the state was to reconstruct the national economy and make institutional developments in the economy.
In order to create the new and modern environments, the state made reforms and applied new master plans for eliminating the effects of World War I and transforming the traditional Turkish society into a modern one. The national economic policies were applied in order to establish a bourgeoisie class and to fasten the social-economic transformation [ 44 ]. Big public works and urban reconstruction projects were applied in Turkish cities in the process of the establishment of the new country. The planned development and modernization activities played important role in Kayseri since the proclamation of the republic.
Until the s, it can be said that the renewal processes of the city have developed according to the plan Table 3. In the plan prepared by him, the gridded urban design incorporating the wide boulevards, which was accepted as the main representation of those years and constituting the main pattern of the city, became dominant. After the s, the squatter housing areas became apparent in city pattern.
The migration from rural to urban areas formed housing problem in cities, because the housing stock was not enough for newcomers. They constructed substandard housing units on the public land. Housing is the largest item in household budgets. Angel rightly notes that housing affordability depends on plentiful and affordable land.
United States Alain Bertaud , of New York University and former principal planner at The World Bank urges planners to "abandon abstract objectives and to focus their efforts on two measurable outcomes that have always mattered since the growth of large cities during the 19th century's industrial revolution: workers' spatial mobility and housing affordability" in his introduction.
He says that "benign sounding objectives usually become a proxy for imposing planning regulations that severely limit the supply of buildable land and the number of housing units built, resulting in ever higher housing prices. United States Hon. This regulation has made land supply unresponsive to demand. When demand shocks occur, as they did in the mids in New Zealand and around the world, much of that shock translates to higher prices rather than more houses.
This summarizes how urban containment policies "smart growth" or "urban consolidation" raises house prices, reduces discretionary incomes and impedes the quality of life while increasing poverty. The 9th Annual Survey chronicles the imperative for restoring housing affordability. Robert Bruegmann notes that Residential real estate plays a huge and increasingly important role in the economy of every nation.
He continues that a growing number of people who have looked at the figures have tended to agree that a good many well-meaning policies involving housing may be pushing up prices to such an extent that the negative side-effects are are more harmful than the problems the policies were intended to correct. This 8th edition shows improvements in many markets, but some, like Hong Kong, Vancouver and Sydney continue to be exhorbitantly expensive. The association between higher house prices and more restrictive land use regulation is clear, as is the conclusion that urban consolidation or smart growth is incompatible with affordable housing.
United States. China Hong Kong Renown author Joel Kotkin notes that even after the bursting of the housing bubble implosion, house prices have risen well above incomes, in his introduction to the 7th edition. Kotkin cites markets such as Los Angeles, San Francisco, and New York, adding that: perhaps most remarkable has been the shift in Australia, once the exemplar of modestly priced, high quality middle class housing, to now the most unaffordable housing market He disputes "progressives" who wrongly claim that dense urbanism is the preference of the next generation He says this promotes a form of neo-feudalism which reverses the great social achievement of dispersing property ownership.
Kotkin concludes that: The ideal Media Release. He says that urban planning policies are poised to reduce home ownership to nothing more "but a dream as vast numbers of young people and the underprivileged will never be able to raise a family within the security of their own home. Recsei systematically rebuts the notion that sustainability requires densification and concludes Unless we are vigilant, high-density zealots will do their best to reverse centuries of gains and drive us back towards a Dickensian gloom. This year's edition highlights the continuing deterioration of housing affordability in Australia and improvements in the United States, where values driven up in the housing bubble in some markets have returned to near the historic norms.
Further, the Survey describes the process by which plan-driven land use regulation growth management, urban consolidation, compact city policy or smart growth makes land for housing development unaffordable and as a result places housing affordability beyond reach. SOS Media Release. This conclusion is in opposition to the "conventional wisdom," which is that larger governments are more efficient. In fact, the only "economies of scale" in larger governments are for special interest, which are able to exert control over larger government organizations with less effort and expenditure than would be necessary to control a myriad of smaller local governments.
At the same time, smaller local governments are more effective because they are "closer to the people. For a full description of our modules, please visit the postgraduate modules page. It explores how different NGOs are able to represent and be accountable to the beneficiaries of their projects and transform unequal power relations. The module engages with critical transformative literature and specifically with alternative design approaches connected with literature of renewed philosophical and critical studies.
It questions the nature and limits of participation and participatory design while engaging with case studies of collective and critical urban and spatial practices. It engages with extreme condition of disasters and their social, physical and political implications on urban areas, the built environment and planning disciplines.
Drawing from current research on the urban turn in Disaster Studies and the entanglements between Disaster Risk Reduction, Development processes and Urban Poverty, the module offers an introduction to the debate on urban resilience and its policy implications. Drawing from transnational research experiences and connections with practitioners, humanitarian workers and development managers, the module reflects on the different challenges posed when working in a post disaster environment and implementing plans, projects and interventions. This studio-based module promotes the merits of existing project scenarios and a critical understanding of case-study analysis and research in design processes.
It focuses on how informal urban territories are constituted and imagined, and engages with a vast variety of urban materiality as a way to learn from existing experiences and reflect on design strategies that are able to deal with the complexities of the urban project. Students are assessed with a written assignment. The MSc UED is taught by DPU staff and associate teaching fellows renowned for their contribution to academic thinking and urban economic analysis in the context of city planning and urban management. Dr Naji Makarem View Naji's profile.