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The features that at least 8 researchers noted were: the ability to search through textual data by keyword matching, the ability to search by concepts, the ability to generate reports about the analysis results, the ability to sort analysis results by different criteria such as date, author, and source, and the ability to allow user to annotate the documents without tampering the original data. Features like the ability to search through annotations, to share analysis results with other users, to visualize analysis results, to search by sentiments, to identify trends and of violations with algorithms, and to save search histories were noted by a few researchers.

With regards to the expectations of qualitative data analysis software, the interviewees presented a wide range of characteristics that would be useful for their research purposes.

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Two interviewees would like a program that would recognize patterns and meaning in the text being analyzed. Interestingly, one interviewee would like to see a program that not only assists in the analysis of data, but also the management of data, in order to assist in the collaborative efforts of qualitative data analysis. The interviewee, who supervises students analyzing U. Out of which they identified that it is important for the software program to have the ability to search through textual data by keyword matching From our questionnaire results, we see that there is a correspondence with the features of the qualitative data analysis tools that the researchers reported to be available in the programs that they have used, and the features that they think should be included in qualitative analysis programs.

For instance, it appears that the ability to identify human rights violation victims was noted by only one researcher as a feature in the existing analysis software, and as an identified expected feature by the respondents it also had the smallest percentage of the responses compared to the other expected features.

Another example is the ability to search through textual data. It was well recognized both as a function provided by the existing software, and as a feature that should be included in qualitative software programs. In addition, the ability for the software to be able to generate reports and search by concepts seem to be quite important too, as more than half of the respondents reported that they have used this feature, and noted that this was a feature that should be included in the new software. The important features identified by the researchers should enable them carry out these tasks.

There are features that a majority of the respondents expected from the new software but were not noted in the existing programs, suggesting that such features are additional user requirements that have not been met in the existing programs. Examples of such features are: to search through annotations, to identify trends and patterns of violations with algorithms, to visualize analysis results, and to share the analysis results. In addition, 17 of 62 people The respondents also noted some other concerns including the ability to share their data with the people they are researching, the cost of software, ownership, privacy issues, reduction of investigator bias, reliability of analysis, replication and internal as well as external validity.

The growing interest of preserving human rights data and making them publicly accessible has also increased the access to human rights violation data. While these trends in the generation and access of human rights violation data offer more data analysis opportunities to human rights researchers, the increasing amount of data also presents a challenge in the data analysis process.

This challenge is particularly severe in qualitative data analysis, as the researchers often need to identify, extract, and interpret meaningful or relevant information from the datasets. Recognizing that there is lack of such understanding in the literature, we interviewed human rights researchers of different disciplines and research areas to understand their data analysis and management practices. We also surveyed the tools that researchers have used or were aware of for facilitating the qualitative analysis process. Our results provide insights about the human rights research data — data sources, types of data, and format of the data, and data analysis and management practices — data access issues, analysis methods and processes, and the use of software programs to facilitate data analysis.

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Health is a human right

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Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article. Interview Our interview had four sections. Online Questionnaire Our questionnaire had 19 questions that reflected the four sections of the interview: background, data, analysis, and QDA software programs. Data Characteristics in Human Rights Research All but one interviewee has dealt with primary data, with some being publicly accessible, some required special access.

Data Analysis Software Programs A variety of software programs have been developed to facilitate the qualitative data analysis process. Data Analysis Processes — Collaborative or Individual The interview study suggested that a collaborative or cooperative data analysis process is common. Terms that Cross or Do Not Cross Disciplines One thing we learned from this interview study is that it is important to consider whether certain terminologies cross or do not cross disciplines when doing research about the research practices, including data collection and analysis techniques, of other researchers.

Experiences with the Existing QDA Software The researchers that responded to our questionnaire used the software to map relationships between different human rights violation 12 of 18 , to compare data from many different sources 10 of 18 , to organize and share human rights violation data with other 9 of 18 , to collect and input human rights violation data 8 of 18 , to analyze complex datasets 7 of 18 and to securely store human rights violation data 7 of Expectation of a New QDA Software Program With regards to the expectations of qualitative data analysis software, the interviewees presented a wide range of characteristics that would be useful for their research purposes.

Bakewell, O. Breaching the borders between research and practice: Development NGOs and qualitative data. Studies in Qualitative Methodology , 8 , — Google Scholar. Crossref Google Scholar. Volume 51 , Issue 1 Pages References Related Information. Close Figure Viewer. Browse All Figures Return to Figure.

Previous Figure Next Figure. Email or Customer ID. Forgot password? Old Password. New Password. Password Changed Successfully Your password has been changed. Returning user. Request Username Can't sign in? This is a significant precedent for PAHO's work. In summary, PAHO's project on health and international human rights law involves:.

Home Public Health, Intl. Human Rights Law and Vulnerable Groups. Finally, we outline some of the challenges and possible scenarios. Health is an especially relevant issue within the UN, as evidenced by the health-related goals and objectives of this supranational body, most notably the core values of the Millennium Development Goals set out in the United Nations Millennium Declaration published in 10 , and, more recently, the Sustainable Development Goals Such is the importance of this issue within the UN and other international organizations that there is a specific academic area dedicated to the topic: global health.

In this respect, it is essential to mention the WHO, a special agency integrated into the UN System that plays a lead role in shaping the concept of global health. It is important to highlight that the doctrine of global health advocated by the WHO brings into play three of the elements explored by this article: health, human rights, and intergovernmental policy.

It should be made clear, therefore, that the analysis presented here is limited to the concept of health as a human right laid down by international policy produced by the WHO and circumscribed by global health.

The European Court of Human Rights

As will be seen below, global health, framed within this relationship between human rights and health, has been the subject of various ethical and political discussions and debates 3. Global health can be understood from different historical, theoretical and political perspectives, reason for which the literature has yet to arrive at a consensus as to its definition 14 - Koplan et al.

Fortes et al. Kickbusch 15 touches on the latter perspective by highlighting the ethical facet of global health, which, conceptually, requires an understanding of the relationship between human health, the health of the planet, and wealth. According to Brown et al.

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It is evident, therefore, that acknowledging health as a human right in its constitution and various subsequent statements, guidelines, and reports has profound implications for the WHO on the international stage. Evans 22 views this as a challenge, fittingly pointing out that the right to health is one of a range of rights for which many states have accepted an obligation under international law.

According to this author, the challenge stems from the fact that liberalism refuses to give this type of human right the same status as civil and political rights. These authors suggest that human rights, especially the right to health, can help advance toward global health equity. The enormous impact that human rights have on the area of global health is therefore evident here. What is most striking about their proposal is not the fact that they associate the human right to health with social determinants of health, but rather that they situate this right within the relative inequalities produced by the unjust and unequal globalized neoliberal economic system.

It should be highlighted that these authors 24 stress that a human rights-based approach to global health is central to restructuring international institutions and cooperation programs.

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They suggest that the approach should be applied in ways that hold those countries directly responsible accountable for the great injustices represented by health inequities, which are in large part a result of a globalized neoliberal system that impoverishes and disregards the rights to health, education, and work of millions of people.

As it can be seen, therefore, the list of authors who defend the enormous potential of health as a human right is rather long 27 - Although it is not the purpose of this article to provide an exhaustive analysis of this topic, it should be noted that the potential of this approach has yet to be fully exploited and huge health inequalities and injustice persist both within and across nations. Universal coverage versus universal access right and health as a human right. I regard universal health coverage as the single most powerful concept that public health has to offer.

Stuckler et al. According to a WHO report published in 38 , funds for financing UHC may be made up of a mix of inputs ranging from contributions made by health policyholders, through direct charging, income tax, or specific taxes on products that are harmful to our health; and, in the case of poorer countries, through international philanthropy and aid programs. This meant that the initial proposals for UHC were not designed by researchers, public officials or health organizations, but rather by economists and actors in the financial markets and international agencies, particularly the World Bank.


Noronha points out that the abandonment of health as a fundamental human right in favor of the understanding of health as a basic service reflects an inversion of priorities in health policy making: the right to health no longer determines health-financing policy to accommodate the limitations imposed by the financing systems. The mantra of universal health coverage therefore conceals an idea that is exactly opposite to its real meaning: a nonuniversal, uncomprehensive, nonpublic, and nonfree health program.

It is therefore evident that the coverage proposed above has left behind the notion of health as a human right, since access to health care is subordinated not to the humana conditio of individuals, but rather the financial conditions necessary for achieving access, relating UHC to a basic package of services provided to more economically disadvantaged groups. Even more important, these documents clearly propose that national health systems should be safeguarded by private insurance companies that provide protection against the financial risk posed by the health of population.

It is therefore evident that the ways the WHO has found to overcome the challenges posed by health as a human right - a notion that the organization itself introduced - have gone against its own creation, detaching health from human rights and associating it with financial constraints. The above, however, is problematic, since, not only is it clearly inconsistent, but also because the facts show and demonstrated even before the implementation of this international policy in that coverage does not necessarily translate into a right or access to health.

The major access problems faced by health care systems implemented based upon the same premises defended by the WHO in countries such as Columbia 45 , Mexico 46 , and Chile 47 , to name but a few, demonstrate this. As it can be seen, therefore, the debate surrounding universal coverage versus universal access is at the center of discussions regarding the notion of health as a human right in international policy created by the WHO.

This is so because defending coverage and delegating it to private health insurance companies goes against that which is laid out in its own constitution. The following section addresses this fact in the light of critical and constructivist theories of international relations in order to explain its genesis and propose possible routes to overcoming this contradiction. Universal coverage versus universal access in the light of critical and constructivist theories of international relations. It is important to understand how this was made possible and the possible ways of overcoming this contradiction.

Given that neoliberal logic is at odds with the idea of exclusive state action, it would be of little use here to examine this question in the light of theories that place almost exclusive emphasis on these actors. In this respect, constructivist 49 and critical 50 - 51 theories of international relations can provide some important insights. Constructivist theory vigorously contests the realist and liberal notion that states alone, through the exercise of power, define international policy.

Contrary to this assumption, constructivism claims that it is the ideas, collective values, and changing identities that define the agenda In this respect, constructivists are mindful of the multiple levels of decision making and understanding within the tapestry of the modern international community, allowing one to understand that it was not the exclusive decision of states, but rather neoliberal economic logic, that led to the election of health coverage as the global paradigm.

Human rights researchers’ data analysis and management practices

The above is also important because the decisions and actions of the WHO cannot be explained solely by the power and existence of states. Indeed, international corporations, foundations and nongovernmental organizations NGOs often carried more weight than state actors. The key role played by the Rockefeller Foundation 19 in the election of universal coverage over universal access is a clear demonstration of this. Critical theory helps to explain how material particularly economic circumstances have influenced decision making within the WHO, since it touches on an important variable related to the role played by the doctrine behind the policy in setting the global agenda.

Also along these same lines, Birn et al. These authors raise an interesting and relevant question here: taking Latin America as their frame of reference, Birn et al. It is useful to examine this question in the light of theories that move away from an exclusive emphasis on state actors, not only to better understand how coverage has gained prominence over access, but also to gain an insight into the possible ways of overcoming the neoliberal logic, such as legitimizing the role of civil society organizations and other initiatives; something that is not possible under the exclusive state paradigm.

The first part envisages national legal and policy reform incorporating equity, participation, and accountability in relation to the health sector. The second involves the use of legal strategies to advance the right to health, while the third encompasses community engagement, empowering communities to claim their right to health. Finally, the fourth part seeks to directly influence how the WHO works by proposing a new global health treaty called the Framework Convention on Global Health to help construct these four pillars.

The issue of health from a human rights perspective has been addressed within the UN, resulting in international policies that either reinforce or weaken the idea of health as a right. More than 65 years after the Universal Declaration of Human Rights 56 , human rights in general, and the right to health in particular, seem to be diluted, raising questions about the current policies of the organization and its executive agencies, such as the WHO.

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On the one hand, the UDHR reaffirms the right to health as a form of resistance 25 , while on the other, attention has shifted away from universal access toward universal coverage, which seems to undermine the notion of health as a right, revealing the current weaknesses of the UN in the face of intergovernmental actions and contributing to growing health inequalities.

The unacceptable global inequalities in health have widened with globalization: the activities of transnational agencies — that involve an array of public and private actors, including states, civil society and corporations - are permeated by different degrees of power and interests that can have nefarious side effects, thus playing a role in widening inequality Treating health as a universal human right means understanding its historical and political dimensions and real social impacts. As a survival strategy in response to this context of international political change, the WHO has begun to reshape itself As a result, the simple humana conditio , which ensures the human right to health from a biological point of view, does not appear to be sufficient to fulfill this right.

The arduous path to achieving the human right to health is marked by progress and setbacks.