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One aspect of Latin American culture, regarding foreign policy, is a prevalent respect for the norm of sovereignty and non-intervention. There exists a strong disposition to follow international law as a means to prevent war or at the very least ward-off potential intervention by extraregional. Theodore Roosevelt was a President known for a very dynamic and progressive administration, and his foreign policy in Latin America was no exception. His policies in Latin America were beneficial for the rapidly growing United States, but left an impact on Latin America that was both positive and negative.

President Roosevelt took past policies of the United States, such as the unenforced Monroe Doctrine of , and amended them to have the backing of the Navy in the early s. One particular. Revolutionary Latin America Models for post-revolutionary Latin American government are born of the complex economic and social realities of 17th and 18th century Europe. From the momentum of the Enlightenment came major political rebellions of the elite class against entrenched national monarchies and systems of power.

Within this time period of elitist revolt and intensive political restructuring, the fundamental basis for both liberal and conservative ideology was driven deep into Latin American. Specifically speaking the Spaniards and British were two different groups of Europeans who colonized different regions around the world. As a result of doing so, the Spaniards who conquered Latin America and the British who conquered Southeast Asia causes depopulation along with cultural changes within the land they colonized.

In the year of , the Queen and King of Spain developed thoughts of strengthening their power and seeking new sources. The war on drugs has been no exception. An investigation of US relations with Latin America in the period from to , reveals the war on drugs to be a convenient extension of an almost year-old policy.

This investigation focuses on the commercial and political objectives of the US in fighting a war on drugs in Latin America. The history of modern Latin America begins after the Second World War when the economic changes wrought by the war, namely the shift towards manufacturing and urbanization, produced political and diplomatic changes across the Americas.

The end of the war led to increased imports from the West, reducing the competitiveness of Latin American industry. Additionally, falling crop prices led to increasing urbanization. The result of these economic and demographic shifts was the rise of a populist movement. Post-Depression Industrialization in Latin America For most of the first century after independence, all republics in Latin America followed an economic policy of export-led growth based on primary-product exports.

The tremendous economic crisis of the s that had a crushing and widespread impact on Latin America; precipitated by the global economic depression, forced Latin American nations to re-evaluate this exogenous economic growth model and to transform their economic policies in the. Neoliberalism in Latin America From the s until the s state intervention and protection were key components of most Latin American economies. In these years many Latin American countries were used an Import-substitution industrialization based economy trying to reduce dependence on foreign imports and replacing them with domestic production.

Due to the use of an Import-substitution industrialization based economy Latin American countries were forced to keep high tariffs to protect. Latin America Distinguishing cultures from one another has become increasingly difficult as various societies continue to intertwine and share their aspects of popular life.

Constant exposure to US and other world cultures has changed the cultures of Latin American countries somewhat, but much of society remains unchanged. These changes have mainly affected the economy, culture and power changes these countries have suffered throughout the years. These three events. Many people would say this is where inequality in Latin America began, with colonization. However, colonization is just a small piece of the roots of inequality of the region, which actually started with the natives of the lands such as the Incas, Aztecs and Mayans. These three empires ruled most of the Latin American region and did so by conquering other native groups or tribes.

The Empires had a ruling class or king that was. Latin America is a continent that is constantly struggling between governmental abuse and oppression of its citizens. In Latin America, it is very common for non —democratic systems to be enforced. During recent years, the continent has experienced a governmental shift from an absolute to a more democratic system.

This era is called the democratic third wave, which brought about democratic like tendencies to Latin America. Many factors such as corruption, poverty, and inequality pushed the people. It shows researches on accessible sustainability instruments and activities to guarantee practical biofuel generation in Latin America, and examines the benefits, advantages and obstructions of implementing sustainability initiatives of biofuel production in latin America.

The Sport Industry in Latin America According to David Wood of the University of Sheffield Sport in Latin America is a multi-billion dollar industry, a tool of populist governments, the largest single presence in the mass media, and a key site for the exploration of questions of ethnicity, identity and gender issues. Latin America extends for more than 8 million square miles. Formed by 26 countries. In total Latin America surpasses million people who live in an area that occupies almost. Prior to the Asian Financial Crisis, the Asian countries such as Thailand, Malaysia, South Korea, Indonesia, Hong Kong and Singapore experienced a remarkable growth in the economy that was considered the highest in the world.

These Asian economies increased by a notable. This essay, firstly, will look at to what extent physical geography has affected Latin America in terms of economic growth. Secondly, it will focus on the other possible factors which have affected its economic growth. There has been much debate over the cause with some stating that geography is the culprit while others blame more social aspects such as politics and political instability, inequality, and educational attainment.

This essay will attempt to evaluate to what extent these claims are true. In this chapter Lozano is trying to discover how the Latin American audiovisual space has changed over time to what it has become in present day. This is told by finding about dominance of US media on Latin American mass media systems and how it has changed from the s to present day. Data taken from the World Bank database show a shift in the economic relations between the United States, China, and the major economies of Latin American region; Brazil and Argentina.

This pattern suggests that, while China increases its presence in Latin America, the United States loses its role as major trading partner, primary source of funding, and predominant political influence in the region. Hisotry of Latin America History of the region from the pre-Columbian period and including colonization by the Spanish and Portuguese beginning in the 15th century, the 19th-century wars of independence, and developments to the end of World War II.

Latin America is generally understood to consist of the entire continent of South America in addition to Mexico, Central America, and the islands of the Caribbean whose inhabitants speak a Romance language. The peoples of this large area shared the experience. From a Latin American perspective, the most important of the European explorers were of course, the Spanish and the Portuguese. In stark contrast, settlers came to the colonies seeking freedom from the religious persecution in Europe.

This was particularly the case with its relationships with Latin America. In the forty years since the revolution, the response to Cuba from Latin American nations has ranged from the severing of diplomatic ties with the island, to the reestablishment of relations at a later period. Fear of the spreading of similar. Latin America is rich in indigenous diversity and cultural traditions. There are hundreds of dialects spoken by indigenous communities in many regions of Latin America. Language is important because it is the way its speaker view the world and the culture that surrounds them.

In Latin American indigenous communities language is also very important because it is the way cultures save memories, express emotions, share traditions, and pass on knowledge Kung, Sherzer. All over the world language, of. In the s and s intellectuals and statesmen in Latin America began to adopt ideologies of race mixture in an effort to advance nation-building projects based on notions of inclusion and racial equality.

These notions which where said to promote racial inclusivity included mestizaje. The ideology of mestizaje often times enabled exclusion through racial terms and marginalization. In order to grasp how such an ideology has created a paradoxical and contradictory outcome politically, economically. Racism does not end at the borders of the United States, and in fact, they only seem to get worse in countries that are less developed. Latin Americans themselves will admit that their families have racist tendencies.

And, although most Latinos are people of color, Eurocentric standards of beauty still dominate Latin culture. Beauty is fair skin, and light hair and eyes. A lot of children. The Independence of Latin America The Independence of Latin America was a process caused by years of injustices, discriminations, and abuse, from the Spanish Crown upon the inhabitants of Latin America.

Since the beginning the Spanish Crown used the Americas as a way to gain riches and become greater in power internationally. Three of the distinct causes leading Latin America to seek independence from Spain, were that Spain was restricting Latin America from financial growth, this. Using one case in Latin America, illustrate what the biggest obstacle to democracy is.

A history of militarism and colonialism are the biggest obstacle to democracy in South America. Using the case of Argentina, this paper will be discussing how its famous history of militarism and consequent military rule has undermined the concept of a democracy.

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This book however, unlike many others has very distinct and contrasting ideas. In his historical piece, Galeano incorporates many peculiar ideas that have since caused controversy following the publishing of the book in the year Indigenous People of Latin America Throughout the world, when new lands were conquered, old customs would be lost.

However, in Latin America, a great deal of their indigenous tribes not only survived being conquered, they are still around today. Different regions of Latin America are home to different peoples and many tribes are part of ancient full-fledged kingdoms. Some of these kingdoms are among the most well-known in the world. The Meso-American native peoples make Latin America famous. The countries of did not show any signs of becoming anything close to independent after their revolutions. They allowed Great Britain and the U. This in return led to brutal political dictators, a large number of landless farm workers, a low literacy rate, and worker repression.

Latin America is a rich. So popular, that people tend to forget the true significance of it. It is known that Latin America faces numerous problems that makes looking into the future a discouraging view; but we fail to realize the lack of education may be the root of these issues, including violence, unemployment and poverty. Even though education is widely available in Latin America, people. Out of the fifteen Latin American nations that have recently adapted some sort of multicultural reform, only three give recognize Afro-Latino communities and give them the same rights as indigenous groups Hooker, Indigenous groups are more successful than afro-descendent groups in gaining collective rights and development aid from.

In the last decades, narco trafficking and organized crime had emerged as the main security threats in Latin America. Deviant globalization increase their power by establishing connections with similar organizations in other parts of the world, like cocaine distribution networks, for example. This perceived danger increases the pressure on the governments for effective solutions, and some of them consider that these problems had overwhelmed the capabilities of the local police. Consequently, the. Women in Latin America during the Colonization The perception of inequality was evident in the colonial Spanish America, man belief that women were lacked in capacity to reason as soundly as men.

An equally hopeful sign was the fact that the MIR leader, Jaime Paz Zamora, was able to hold together a coalition with the right-wing national Democratic Alliance ADN to serve a full four-year presidential term. In Bolivia, this is a major accomplishment. While some saw the move as a cynical ploy, others expressed hope that Bolivia's long-suffering native population might be brought into the political system. State enterprises that were privatized included the national railroad, the state-owned airline, and the nation's electric power generation facilities.

In spite of continued economic stabilization and progress, the government's policies drew protests and labor strikes leading to the declaration of a day state of siege in In , Gen. One year into his term, the economy was stagnant, and social and racial tensions kept the country in turmoil. Mesa was appointed president and promised to implement social and economic reforms to mitigate poverty and bring about political reform.

Mesa also took on a harder stance against Chile and promised that Bolivian natural gas would not be exported through Chilean ports. Although he did experience some positive response, Mesa soon found himself under the same heavy fire that brought his predecessor down. Mesa was forced to resign on 9 June Indigenous leader Evo Morales was widely seen as the favorite to win the presidential election. Yet, he was also the most important indigenous political leader and represented an excluded class of Bolivians who had been historically subjected to neglect and poverty.

Thus, his electoral victory was considered the only way to bring about stability and political inclusion. Presidential elections were held in December Evo Morales won an absolute majority of the vote He defeated former President Jorge Quiroga Morales's strong showing was unusual for Bolivia, where presidents are usually elected by Congress after candidates fail to get an absolute majority of the vote. MAS obtained a clear majority control of the Chamber of Deputies 72 seats in the member Chamber and 12 of the 27 seats in the Senate. As of this election there had been no other president in Bolivian history that had enjoyed such a clear mandate.

Morales promised to bring about economic reforms to help the marginalized and poor, to fight corruption, and nationalize mining interests. Constitutionally, Bolivia is a centralist republic. The constitution of 3 February amended in provides for a representative democracy, with its government divided into an executive branch, a bicameral legislature a Congress consisting of a Chamber of Deputies and a Senate , and the judiciary.

President Morales promised to call special elections in for a constitutional assembly mandated with drafting a new constitution. Bolivia has had a spotty constitutional history. The current constitution is the result of a series of actions begun by the military junta that took control in November The junta replaced the constitution with the constitution, as amended in At the same time, it retained those sections of the constitution that dealt with universal suffrage, nationalization of the tin mines, land reform, and compulsory education.

The constitution was further amended to circumscribe the power of militia forces. In practice, the constitution has not been rigorously observed. Coups and states of siege have been frequent. Congress was dissolved by the armed forces from to and again between and The constitution was amended in to give more power to the president and recognize indigenous people. If successful, President Morales would have a new constitution written. It would be the first where an indigenous majority took an active role in shaping the institutional order of Bolivia. Under the constitution, the president and the vice president are elected by direct popular vote for a four-year term and cannot serve consecutive terms.

If no candidate receives a majority in a presidential election, the Congress chooses among the three leading candidates. However, between and , no presidential elections were held. The president's powers are considerable, and presidential authority often extends beyond the constitution.

South America's Fight For Independence

The president has the prerogative to declare a state of siege and may then rule by decree for 90 days. The Congress consists of 27 senators three from each department and deputies. Deputies and senators are elected for five-year terms concurrently with the president. Bolivia utilizes a form of proportional representation to ensure minority representation in the Chamber of Deputies and an incomplete-list system for the Senate. The regular session of Congress lasts for 90 days. Universal suffrage, with no literacy or property qualifications, was decreed in for married persons at 18 years and single persons at The constitution includes a bill of rights, which guarantees the right to express ideas freely, petition the government, and obtain a release under a writ of habeas corpus in case of illegal detention.

Bolivia's proportional representation system has encouraged the formation of several political parties. Numerous parties and coalitions have formed and dissolved over the years, usually tied to the personalities of the various leaders. Although militant originally, the years have moderated the party's stance. The MNR came to power in , with the help of the Revolutionary Workers Party, the carabineros national police , and the miners' and peasants' militias. In the subsequent years, the MNR began to rely increasingly on foreign aid , especially from the United States , and became increasingly autocratic and corrupt.

Finally, quarreling among the party leadership weakened the party, and by the MNR's monopoly on power had dissolved. In November , Paz was sent into exile in Peru. Banzer then outlawed the MNR in November However, the ADN was instrumental in bringing Paz Zamora to power, and held half the ministerial positions in that government. In the most recent presidential election, the ADN candidate only managed to obtain 6. As mandated by the constitution, Congress had to choose the president from among the top two vote-getters.

After the elections, MAS, whose indigenous identity shapes its politics and policies, was the largest political party in the country. Democratic and Social Power PDS , a new alliance formed around former President Jorge Quiroga, became the second-largest party in congress after the elections. Bolivia is essentially a unitary system, with a highly centralized national government. However, in the elections, Bolivians also chose their provincial prefects directly. The departments are subdivided into 94 provinces, each headed by a subprefect appointed by the prefect. The provinces are further divided into 1, cantons, each of which is under the jurisdiction of a magistrate corregidor.

As of , Bolivia had municipalities. There are no local legislatures. Important towns and cities have more self-government. Each has a popularly elected council of from 5 to 12 members, but municipal tax ordinances must be approved by the Senate. Mayors alcaldes are also elected. The Amerindian communities, although they are not formal administrative units, are recognized by law. The Bolivian judiciary usually defers to the political direction of the nation's executive. Judicial power is exercised by the Supreme Court, the superior district courts in each department courts of second instance , and the local courts courts of first instance.

The Supreme Court, which sits at Sucre, is divided into four chambers: two deal with civil cases, one with criminal cases, and one with administrative, mining, and social cases. The 12 Supreme Court judges, called ministros, are chosen for year terms by a two-thirds vote of the Chamber of Deputies from a list of three names submitted for each vacancy by the Senate. They may be reelected indefinitely. Most cases that reach the Supreme Court are appellate; its area of original jurisdiction is limited mainly to decisions on the constitutionality of laws and to disputes involving diplomats or important government officials.

Each district court judge is elected by the Senate for six years from a list of three submitted by the Supreme Court. The district courts usually hear appeals from the courts of first instance. Judges of the courts of first instance tribunales and juzgados are chosen by the Supreme Court from a list submitted by the district courts. There is also a separate national labor court and an agrarian court, dealing with agrarian reform cases.

Defendants have a right to counsel, to confront witnesses, to present evidence, and to appeal. These rights are generally respected. As of , Bolivia's armed forces totaled 31, active personnel, of which the Army numbered 25,, the Navy 3,, and the Air Force 3, personnel. The Army's equipment included 36 light tanks, 24 reconnaissance vehicles, 77 armored personnel carriers, and over artillery pieces.

The service also had a 1, member Marine force. The Air Force had 37 combat capable aircraft that included 18 fighter ground attack aircraft. Paramilitary forces consisted of a national police force of more than 31, and a narcotics police force of over 6, Bolivia participated in seven UN peacekeeping missions. Bolivia joined the WTO on 12 September Bolivia is an associate member of Mercosur. Bolivia has offered support to UN efforts in Kosovo est. Bolivia is one of the Western Hemisphere's poorest countries, despite an abundance of mineral resources.

Its economy has always been dependent on mineral exports, principally of tin, but these have gradually declined since World War II. Little of the nation's great agricultural and forest potential has been developed; agriculture remains little above the subsistence level, and Bolivia must import large quantities of food.

Moreover, evidence is that the coca crop eradication program, without effective crop substitution, has led to a substantial contraction in the informal market. In February , there were violent clashes with coca farmers, and in March, the police joined protests against an IMF-sponsored tax hike, which the government subsequently rescinded. Inflation, which had averaged 3. Attempts to implement IMF austerity programs to contain inflation back-fired in the face of violent protests and government efforts to their limit human costs. After , a strong anti-inflation consensus allowed the government to apply strong austerity measures that brought annual inflation down to The immediate result was a jump in capital repatriation and retention as a result of the rise in interest rates.

Inflation was held to double digits until , after which averages have been held to single digits. Bolivia's high foreign debt obliged it to seek private partners in order to raise capital. The average GDP growth between and was By , Bolivia was in its second decade of democratic rule and its thirteenth consecutive year of economic expansion.

Market reforms were firmly in place, investment was growing steadily and inflation under control, at 4. Privatization of state-owned industries had improved the investment environment of Bolivia. Growth was led by energy particularly investments in the gas pipeline to Brazil and in hydrocarbons exploration , mining, and agriculture particularly in soy products as a substitute for coca.

In , however, real GDP growth slowed to 0. Another factor thought to be dampening growth was the success of the coca crop eradication program coupled with a lack of success in crop substitution. An estimated 50, to 60, hectares of coca had been eliminated by , leaving between 5, and 10, hectares although in there were reports of substantial increases. An improvement to 2. Inflation also increased in , to 4. Real GDP growth in was estimated at 2. The program aims at containing public sector borrowing while increasing social expenditures, containing inflation, increasing international reserves, and adopting policies to strengthen the banking sector.

Its GDP growth rate was also less than all of the same countries, with the exception of Bolivia. The CIA defines GDP as the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year and computed on the basis of purchasing power parity PPP rather than value as measured on the basis of the rate of exchange based on current dollars. The average inflation rate in was 5.

It was estimated that agriculture accounted for Household consumption includes expenditures of individuals, households, and nongovernmental organizations on goods and services, excluding purchases of dwellings. It was estimated that for the period to household consumption grew at an average annual rate of 3. Bolivia's labor force was estimated at 4. In , the latest year for which data was available , the As of , unemployment in Bolivia was estimated to be widespread.

Workers may form and join unions, but the labor courts and inadequate government laws undermine the effectiveness of this right. The government must authorize a union, may dissolve a union, and must confirm the legitimacy of elected officers. Workers, however, are generally not penalized for union activity. The Bolivian Labor Federation theoretically represents all workers, but only one half of the employees actually belong.

Strikes are prohibited in public services, although some strikes were initiated and workers were not penalized. The law prohibits child labor under age 14, but this is generally ignored. This does not provide a decent standard of living , and most workers earn more than the minimum. The workday is set at eight hours a day with a maximum of 48 hours per week, but this is not effectively enforced.

An estimated 2. Agricultural development has been impeded by extremely low productivity, poor distribution of the population in relation to productive land, and a lack of transportation facilities. The agrarian reform decree of August was aimed at giving ownership of land to those working it and abolishing the large landholdings latifundios. By , Except around Lake Titicaca, about two-thirds of the cultivated land on the Altiplano lies fallow each year.

Dry agriculture is the rule, and the most important crops are potatoes, corn, barley, quinoa a millet-like grain , habas broad beans , wheat, alfalfa, and oca a tuber. The eastern slopes, however, are too steep to permit the use of machinery, and erosion is a serious problem despite the practice of terracing. The most lucrative crop in the Yungas is coca, which is chewed by the local population and from which cocaine is extracted. The government allows up to 12, hectares 29, acres of legal coca cultivation to supply the legitimate pharmaceutical market.

The net production of coca leaf was estimated at 29, tons in , down from 85, tons in Coffee, cacao, bananas, yucca, and aji a widely used chili pepper are also important. In the fertile irrigated valleys, the important crops are corn, wheat, barley, vegetables, alfalfa, and oats. The Tarija area is famous for grapes, olives, and fruit.


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The region east of Santa Cruz de la Sierra, where most of the nation's unused fertile lands lie, is considered the "promised land" of Bolivian agriculture. Lowland rice production is increasing rapidly and already satisfies domestic need. The sugar grown there is used mostly for alcohol, but in the s, the mills increased their refining capacity, thus meeting internal consumption requirements. In the tropical forests of the northeast, the Indians practice slash-and-burn agriculture.

Eagles Of the Andes by Beals, Carleton

The leading commercial crops are soybeans, cotton, sugar, and coffee. Production in for selected crops was soybeans, 1,, tons; seed cotton, 80, tons; sunflowers, , tons; wheat, , tons; coffee, 24, tons; sugar, 4. Droughts and freezing weather in the west during the s caused harvests to fall for basic crops like quinoa, potatoes, barley, and garden vegetables. In there were an estimated 6. Poultry numbered 75 million in In , a joint program began with Brazil to eradicate and control hoof and mouth disease in cattle, which had caused exports of beef to fall that year.

Cochabamba is the leading dairy center, and improved herds there supply a powdered-milk factory. Genetic development helped increase milk production from an average of , tons annually during — 91 to , tons by The Amerindians of the high plateau depend on the llama because it can carry loads at any altitude and provides leather, meat, and dung fuel.

Breeding of alpacas and llamas is by and large left to chance; disease is rampant, and production is low, considering the relatively large numbers of animals. In , the llama population was about two million, and the alpacas numbered , The United Nations and the Integrated Association of Camelmen in the High Andes began a program in to improve the quality of the animals' meat and wool. Fishing is a minor activity in Bolivia. A few varieties of fish are caught in Lake Titicaca by centuries-old methods and sent to La Paz.

The catch was 6, tons in Bolivia has some of the world's largest rainbow trout, and Bolivian lakes are well stocked for sport fishing. Bolivia is potentially one of the world's most important forestry nations. More than half of the total area is held as public land by the state, and more than 40 million hectares million acres of forest and woodland are maintained as reserves or for immediate exploitation.

More than 2, species of tropical hardwoods of excellent quality, such as mahogany, jacaranda, rosewood, palo de balsa, quina, ironwood, colo, and cedar, abound in this area. Sawmills are few, however, and the almost total lack of transportation facilities has made exploitation expensive. Most of the sawmills are in the eastern department of Santa Cruz. Roundwood production in was 2. Bolivia has traditionally been a mining country — mining was the country's top industry — producing antimony, bismuth, copper, gold, lead, silver, tungsten, and zinc.

It had large reserves of gold, lithium, iron ore, natural gas, and petroleum. Production totals for were: zinc, , metric tons; gold, 9, kg; silver, , kg; tin, 16, metric tons; lead, 9, metric tons; antimony, 2, metric tons; tungsten, metric tons; rough amethyst, kg; hydraulic cement, 1,, metric tons; and arsenic, metric tons. The richest and most productive alluvial gold deposits were located in Challana and the Kaka, the Mapiri, and the Tipuani River valleys, in the northern area of La Paz Department.

For two centuries following the discovery of silver at Cerro Rico de Potosiacute in , the area that became Bolivia was the largest producer of silver. Cerro Rico was protected as a United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization site, making the use of expensive backfill mining techniques necessary to maintain the mountain's shape. New studies at the base of the mountain estimated 3. Bolivia's tradition of state-owned monopolies has been a highly politicized topic; the government's capitalization plan became a way to bring Bolivia the benefits of privatization, without entirely turning over state companies to private investors.

The large number of available prospects and a new mining code have encouraged mineral exploration in the country. Capacity at Bolivian electric power plants rose from , kW in to 1. Electric power output in was 3. In , electric power output rose to an estimated 4. Consumption of electricity in totaled 3. In , consumption was estimated at 3. However, the estimates tend to vary. Bolivia's Ministry of Mining and Hydrocarbons reports that the nation's proven reserves stand at million barrels, as of end While Bolivia's domestic oil production is able to meet the country's internal needs, the country must still import certain petroleum products, in particular, diesel.

As of November , refinery capacity stood at 67, barrels per day. Production of natural gas has gradually increased from the mids until the early s. Meanwhile, estimates of Bolivia's natural gas reserves keep growing. In , Bolivia's natural gas reserves were put at billion cu m 24 trillion cu ft , according to an official estimate. As of January , the nation's proven reserves of natural gas were placed at If potential reserves are included, Bolivia may have the second-largest in South America. Estimated production in was 3. In , production totaled 8. Historically, industrial development has been severely restricted by political instability, the small domestic market, the uncertain supply of raw materials, and the lack of technically trained labor.

Domestic industry supplies less than one-fourth of the processed food and manufactured goods consumed. Over one-half of manufacturing output is in nondurable consumer goods — food, beverages, tobacco, and coffee. Handicrafts and hydrocarbons account for much of the remainder. The ensuing economic stabilization program was a mixed blessing to industry. The manufacturing sector grew by 3. The mining and hydrocarbon sector contracted because of the decline in mining output and stagnation in the production of petroleum and natural gas.

The slump in the hydrocarbons subsector was because of the depletion of a number of wells, lack of investment in exploring for new deposits, and the torrential rains that damaged the infrastructure of the state-owned company. In the late s, Bolivia experienced a renaissance in the mining and hydrocarbons sectors due to privatization of the stateowned interests in these sectors. This attracted foreign interest in developing the energy and minerals potential of the country. In , Bolivia had three oil refineries with a production capacity of 63, barrels per day.

The construction and manufacturing sectors were experiencing a slowdown in , after three years of a stagnant economy. The development of the country's infrastructure was expected to be an engine for industrial growth, however. The opening of a gas pipeline to Brazil in was expected to take in much of Bolivia's natural gas production.

The Bolivian National Academy of Sciences was founded in Notable scientific and technological research institutes and learned societies include the Bolivian Geological Service and Bolivian Petroleum Institute, both in La Paz. Bolivia has eight universities offering courses in basic and applied sciences. Undistributed expenditures accounted for the remainder. La Paz is the chief marketing center. Oruro is second to La Paz as a market for imported goods and is the main distributing center for mining supplies. Santa Cruz is also quickly becoming an important market center for imported goods.

Cochabamba distributes its agricultural production to La Paz and the mining districts. Though most retail is accomplished through small shops and street vendors, there are a number of large import houses and wholesalers in the major cities. In more rural areas, most buying and selling is carried on at weekly markets and village fairs and barter may still be common.

Advertising has become highly developed over the past few years, with television being the most used medium, followed by newspapers and radio. There are at least 12 major market research firms active in the country. However, many of these companies are controlled by foreign investors, which has made some capitalization plans nationally unpopular. In , violent protests over plans to capitalize the water company of Cochabamba forced the government to cancel an arrangement with foreign investors and keep the utility under public control. Regular retail store hours are weekdays, 9 am to noon and to pm.

Business hours differ somewhat by city. In La Paz and Cochabamba, hours are 9 am to noon and pm to or 7 pm. In Santa Cruz, hours are generally from 7 or 8 am to pm with a two-hour lunch break around the middle of the workday. Bank hours are 9 am to noon and 2 to pm. Bolivia depends primarily on its mineral exports, especially zinc, natural gas, and gold. Tin exports, which had been an integral part of the Bolivian export schedule, have been gradually decreasing since The devaluation of tin caused major problems in the Bolivian economy, and now tin plays a minor role in Bolivia's exports, as the country moves to diversify.

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Exports of natural and manufactured gas and petroleum are expected to surpass those of other minerals in the future, as a new pipeline has facilitated exports of natural and manufactured gas to neighboring Brazil. Agricultural exports include wood, oil seeds, soya, and animal feed. The United States has historically been Bolivia's chief trading partner. However, recently Bolivia has been diversifying its trade relations to include more regular trade with regional and European partners.

Though devaluations in Brazil and Argentina and respectively and nontariff barriers in CAN have discouraged trade somewhat, Brazil has nonetheless become Bolivia's main trading partner due to gas exports something that China has been increasingly interested in importing, as well. Bolivia's drive to diversify its exports is assisted by Chinese demand for soybeans and other Bolivian commodity exports. Unlike many nations, Bolivia has no large earnings from tourism or shipping to compensate for trade deficits. After World War II, falling exports and rising imports led to depletion of the nation's gold and foreign currency reserves.

Foreign direct investment was concentrated in the hydrocarbons and service sectors. The Central Bank of Bolivia, established in and reorganized in , is the sole bank of issue. The Bolivian Development Corp. Private banks, which had been under strict control since , were largely deregulated in mid The money market rate, or the rate at which financial institutions lend to one another in the short term, was 6. The discount rate, the interest rate at which the central bank lends to financial institutions in the short term, was 8. The Bolivian Stock Exchange is the main stock exchange , with seven listed companies trading in There is also the Santa Cruz Stock Exchange.

In , there were over 20 insurance companies doing business in Bolivia. Many of the expenditures and revenues of autonomous agencies — government development, mining, petroleum corporations, and the universities — do not appear in the central budget. Since April , comprehensive privatization has helped decrease the need for public sector expenses. In , both current and capital spending had been reduced as a percentage of GDP. On the one hand, state capital spending, in the productive sector, fell overall as the privatization and capitalization programs relieved the state of responsibility for the capital spending of leading industrial enterprises; on the other, social investment rose sharply.

The International Monetary Fund IMF reported that in , the most recent year for which it had data, central government revenues were b14, million and expenditures were b18, million. Government outlays by function were as follows: general public services, The Bolivian revenue system contains an unusually large number of taxes, leading to complexity and confusion that make the system difficult to enforce. Both local and foreign corporations can receive tax holidays, exemptions, and other benefits if they invest in new companies or in production of nontraditional exports.

There is an effective tax rate of Bolivia also levies excise taxes on alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages 1. In , Bolivia signed a free trade agreement with Mexico and continues to lower or eliminate trade barriers. In , Bolivia issued the Petroleum Code, safeguarding foreign investment in the exploitation of petroleum, and US oil companies began large-scale exploration and development. Although the investment law of December granted substantial benefits to foreign investors, political instability, inadequate infrastructure, and Bolivia's poor debt-repayment record held foreign investments down.

The Investment Law guaranteed basic rights to foreign investors: national treatment, free currency conversion, no restrictions on remittances, and the right to international arbitration in most industries. Bolivia's economic future lies in the development of large reserves of natural gas discovered by foreign companies working in Bolivia. Plans to construct pipelines to deliver gas to Mexico and California depend on foreign investment. In , foreign investment activities were the focus of two widespread social protests. The United States has been Bolivia's major foreign investor, accounting for a third to a half of all investment.

Smaller investments were made by Chile, Peru, and Canada. As an associate member of Mercosur, Bolivia has benefited from increasing investment from regional partners and Europe. In the place of the United States, which invested in the privatized oil and electricity industries, now Brazil, Italy, and the United Kingdom are big investors. However, the Economist Intelligence Unit predicts that political uncertainty may stem foreign investment in energy in In , Bolivia was one of the first Latin American countries to institute market liberalizations — following the model set by Chile years earlier.

In , newly elected President Lozada furthered these liberalizations by increasing privatizations, which were called capitalizations in order to deflect criticism, increasing money spent on education and decreasing the federal government 's regulatory power. Unrest among the large indigenous population and the difficulties of cracking down on cocoa leaf production hampered economic development in South America's poorest country. The HIPC assistance and bilateral debt relief was to reduce Bolivia's total external debt by one-half. In , the government was pursuing policies aimed toward poverty reduction and the stabilization of the financial system, including the enacting of a modern bankruptcy law.

In , the total external debt to GDP ratio was Evo Morales became president in January , and it was expected that economic policy would become more state-led during his five-year term. Increased public spending will likely cause the fiscal deficit — a deficit that had narrowed in May due to revenues generated by the new hydrocarbons law — to grow in — Social security coverage, through private insurance, is compulsory for all workers, and voluntary coverage is available to the self-employed. Those covered by the program receive medical, hospital, dental, and pharmaceutical care for themselves and their families.

Old age pensions begin at age Maternity benefits cover female workers and workers' wives. Family allowances include cash payments for birth, nursing, and burial and monthly subsidies for each unmarried child. Although guaranteed equal rights under the law, women by and large do not enjoy the same social status as men due to limited political power and social traditions.

In most cases, women earn less than men for doing similar work. Spousal abuse and domestic violence are widespread in Bolivia. As of , the government had taken little action to combat domestic abuse. Laws are in place to protect women, but they are irregularly enforced.

Sexual harassment, although illegal, is considered to be common. The government does not give priority to improve the welfare of children. Government surveys show that nearly one in three children are physically or psychologically abused. Corporal punishment is used widely at home and in schools. Child labor and prostitution continue to be major problems. Human rights improved in but there were still problems in many areas including excessive force, extortion, and improper arrest by security forces.

The prison system is harsh and life-threatening. Health conditions have been notably poor, owing to poor hygiene and an insufficient number of doctors and hospitals, especially in rural areas. The most common disorders are acute respiratory diseases, tuberculosis, malaria, hepatitis, and Chagas' disease. In , per , people were diagnosed with malaria and in there were cases of tuberculosis per , people. In , cholera was reported in 2, cases. In , there were an estimated 73 physicians, nurses, and 8 dentists per , people. Bolivia had 3, public and private health care facilities, with a total of 12, beds, as of The country's public health care expenditures as of equaled an estimated 6.

The — Strategic Health Plan was designed to ensure universal access to primary care through a system of basic insurance. There was a birth rate of 31 per 1, people in The infant mortality rate has declined from per 1, live births in to 53 per 1, in Life expectancy in was estimated at The overall death rate was 8 per 1, people.

The Bolivian government has taken a greater role in the health of its citizens. At the census, there were a total of about 2,, housing units nationwide. The majority of all housing units were detached private dwellings. Although the government intended to provide adequate drinking water systems for all places of 2, or more inhabitants and to alleviate the sewage system shortage, water systems remain inadequate in some areas.


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  8. Primary education, which lasts for eight years, is compulsory and free of charge. Secondary education lasts for another four years and students have the option of choosing either a general education or a technical studies track. The academic year runs from March to December. The language of instruction is Spanish. Most students complete their primary education. The student-to-teacher ratio for primary school was at about in ; the ratio for secondary school was about Bolivia has about 10 state-funded and 23 private universities. The adult literacy rate for was estimated at about As of , public expenditure on education was estimated at 6.

    There are a small number of public libraries throughout Bolivia, with a combined collection of , volumes. The National Archives and Library in Sucre , volumes serves as a public library for that city and as a depository library of the United Nations. The Department of Culture operates a large library in La Paz with , volumes, as does the Institute of Bolivian Culture, housing , volumes. There are several provincial museums, including the House of Liberty in Sucre, commemorating Bolivian independence, and the Institute of Anthropology and Archaeology Museum in Cochabamba. In , there were an estimated 72 mainline telephones for every 1, people.

    The same year, there were approximately mobile phones in use for every 1, people. The telegraph system is owned by the Ministry of Communications; remote parts of the country are connected by wireless. A government-owned television station broadcasts from La Paz, but there are several privately owned stations in the country as well. There were AM and 73 FM radio stations in There were 48 television stations as of In , there were an estimated radios for every 1, people.

    Due to low literacy rates, radio is the most important source of news and information for many rural dwellers. In , there were There were 16 secure Internet servers in the country in In there were at least 13 major daily newspapers. The Constitution of Bolivia provides for the freedom of speech and press, and the government is said to allow free operation of electronic and print media.

    However, the penal code provides that persons found guilty of slandering government officials may be jailed, though it is said that this law is infrequently enforced. There are departmental chambers of commerce throughout the country. The dry season May — November is Bolivia's peak tourist season. La Paz and Sucre have many colonial churches and buildings, and there are Inca ruins on the islands of Lake Titicaca, which also offers opportunities for fishing and sailing.

    The world's highest ski run is located at Chacaltaya. Mountain climbing and hiking are available on the country's cordilleras and other peaks. In , there were about , visitor arrivals in Bolivia, including , visitors from the Americas. Visitors stayed an average of two nights. Pedro Domingo Murillo — was the precursor and first martyr of Bolivian independence. The most infamous of the 19th-century Bolivian dictators was Mariano Melgarejo — Juan Evo Morales Ayma b.

    The highly original poet and philosopher Franz Tamayo — , although belonging to the landed aristocracy, was a champion of the downtrodden Amerindian. Tamayo was elected president in , but an army revolt prevented him from taking power. The archaeologist and anthropologist Arturo Posnansky — , born in Austria , did pioneering work in studying the civilization that once flourished at Lake Titicaca.

    Jaime Laredo b. Alexander, Robert Jackson. Westport, Conn. Calvert, Peter. Goldstein, Daniel M. Durham, N. Health in the Americas, edition. Washington, D. Herndon, William Lewis. Exploration of the Valley of the Amazon, — New York : Grove Press, Klein, Herbert S.

    Bolivia: the Evolution of a Multi — ethnic Society, 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press, Sanabria, Harry. Ann Arbor : University of Michigan Press, Thoumi, Francisco E. Illegal Drugs, Economy and Society in the Andes. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. September 22, Retrieved September 22, from Encyclopedia. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.

    The Republic of Bolivia, in the center of South America , is land-locked and surrounded by 5 countries: Paraguay , Argentina , and Chile in the south; Brazil in the east; and Peru in the north. Because it is split by some of the highest mountains in the world, isolation plagues educational progress. La Paz is the government capital of Bolivia, but Sucre is the legal capital and the seat of the judiciary power of the country. The geographic, political, and economic factors of Bolivia and its demography have long been an impediment to easy progress and development.

    The country covers 1,, square kilometers about , square miles and, according to the National Institute of Statistics it has an average of about 7. The estimates of population range from 8,, to 8,, inhabitants in , depending on the sources. By any estimate, Bolivia has one of the lowest demographic densities in the western hemisphere and a yearly population growth of only about 2.

    Its inhospitable living conditions are reflected in the percentages of land types: 20 percent desert, 11 percent land with negligible irrigation, 40 percent rain forest, approximately 25 percent pasture and meadows, 2 percent inland water, and 2 percent Andean range, including an uninhabited area called the "Altiplano" with arctic weather at more than 5, meters high.

    Only two percent is arable land. As for the population, only 57 percent have access to potable water, and 76 percent have inadequate sanitary facilities. However, in the early s this unfortunate state of affairs began to improve. Like the rest of the Andean region, Bolivia is believed to have been permanently inhabited for about 21, years.

    Its history is usually divided into three broad historical periods: Pre-colonial from the origins until , Colonial , and Republican from until now. Agriculture seems to have started around A. Centered around Tiwanaku, south of Lake Titicaca, the Tiwanakan civilization developed through colonization rather than conquest.

    The ruins of Tiwanaku reveal advanced architectural techniques. The causes of the city's disappearance around A. The Aymara improved the food supply through a very sophisticated system of irrigation, the source of an agricultural prosperity that sustained a large population.

    The drying out of its system of canals seems a likely explanation for the decline of the region. The Aymara could not contain the expansion of the Quechua-speaking ethnic group. Around , the latter added the highlands to the empire they already controlled. In the early fifteenth century they took the name of Incas after their rulers, and they remained in power until the arrival of the Spanish in Other ethnic cultures like the Moxos in the lowlands and the Mollos north of where La Paz stands also disappeared in the thirteenth century.

    During the Colonial Period, the region became known as "Upper Peru" since it depended on the Viceroyalty of Lima, but it was also known as Charcas because the local government was centered in Chuquisaca now Sucre. Due to the region's abundance of silver, the Spanish settled and prospered. The conquest brought with it the Roman Catholic Church. The church, led primarily by the Jesuits, became the prime provider of education and continues to deeply influence education, though a parallel private system has become a new feature of Bolivia since The take-over of education by the Jesuits deeply affected the indigenous populations.

    This change had a dramatic effect inasmuch as the indigenous populations, who still represented 56 percent of the population in , were denied education unless they first became bilingual. Furthermore, since no provision existed for their learning Spanish, the indigenous populations became and remained second-class citizens within their own territories.

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    The representatives of the Roman Catholic Church privileged their own compatriots, the newly arrived Spaniards and Europeans, so that education, with the exception of a few Indian leaders, excluded Indians and women. Under the best of circumstances, education became the choice instrument of transculture, of subversion, and of the loss of the Amerindian cultural heritage and identity.

    The fact that 95 percent of the total population of Bolivia is now Catholic demonstrates the degree of the sweeping transcultural indoctrination that occurred in the country after the arrival of the Spanish. Although independence was declared in , it was not until August 6, , when, after a long struggle, Bolivia was established. Named in honor of Simon Bolivar , one of the heroes of Independence, the country, at the time of independence, was more than twice its present size.

    After the independence a series of brief, unstable constitutions were implemented. When the country engaged in the war of the Pacific against Chile and Peru it was weak, due to a succession of coups. In , Chile won the nitrate-rich Atacama desert, Bolivia's only seacoast access. This loss irremediably damaged the economy. At the end of the nineteenth century, Bolivia's situation was somewhat improved by the world increase in the price of silver and later by the exploitation of tin. But bad capitalist policies left the majority of indigenous population living under the most primitive conditions in deplorable poverty, all for the benefit of a small elite.

    Bolivia engaged in the Chaco war against Paraguay from until , and was defeated, losing about 60, men, a large part of its territory, and its last strategic access to the sea through the Paraguay River. The Amerindians, representing the majority in numbers, had gained political awareness while serving in the Bolivian military; nevertheless, they had no access to education, no economic opportunities, and no representation in politics.

    They grew tired of having no representation in the political arena, and their demands remained inadequately answered. The last straw came when the MNR, which had gained victory in the presidential elections, was denied its victory. Soon afterwards a rebellion erupted, culminating in the revolution. A series of reforms improved the conditions of indigenous peoples: universal suffrage, the development of rural education, the spread of primary education, and the implementation of important land reforms.

    Most of the Altiplano taken from the Amerindians was returned to them. Tin mines were nationalized, as were both the Bolivian mining corporations. In spite of such progress, human rights were not respected, and a military junta overthrew the presidency in One of its members, Rene Barrientos, was elected president in but died soon after in It was during his presidency in October , that Che Guevara attempted to start a Cuban type revolution.

    The army later executed him. In response, a series of military coups occurred and weak governments succeeded until Colonel Hugo Banzer Suarez became president in In spite of an impressive growth of the economy during his presidency, the suspension of political activities that he enforced reduced his initial popularity. Fraudulent successive elections took place in and There was a short break of successions in and when Lidia Gueiler Tejada became the first female president, but in , after coups and counter-coups, the ruthless General Luis Garcia Meza, a known human rights abuser and trafficker in narcotics, led a violent coup.

    He remained in office only until After leaving office, General Luis Garcia Meza was convicted in absentia, extradited from Brazil, and began serving a year sentence in Several short-lived military governments and other weak leaders followed until However, the situation he inherited was precarious. The economy was in crisis, annual inflation was at 24, percent, strikes and unrest were rampant, and drug trafficking was widespread.

    Paz Estenssoro managed to achieve stability in four years but at a high price. The collapse of tin prices forced his government to lay off more than 20, workers, leading to social unrest. Paz Zamora became the president and continued the reforms begun by Estenssoro. His integrity became questionable when he was later investigated for his personal ties to drug trafficker Isaac Chavarria. Many reforms took place, including the Capitalization Program, which let investors acquire 50 percent ownership and management control in public enterprises.

    People opposed to these changes instigated frequent social disturbances until On August 6, , he took office. Significant to the big picture is the fact that in the years of its independence Bolivia had governments. Some facts about the poverty level of Bolivia are necessary to help understand the reforms in the educational system and to appreciate the country's current problems. According to the U. But this data shows only a part of the picture; the fact that the average income in Bolivia is the lowest of the continent is, of course, important, but the inequalities among Bolivians themselves are far worse.

    While 10 percent of the population receives 40 percent of the total national income of Bolivia, 40 percent of the population is in poverty, totaling only 10 percent of the same national income.