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Related Products. What the EMF? Love Yourself First! Nickel-alloy in 5p and 10p UK coins was replaced with nickel-plated steel began in , causing allergy problems for some people and public controversy. More than 2. In addition, extensive deep-sea resources of nickel are in manganese crusts and nodules covering large areas of the ocean floor, particularly in the Pacific Ocean. The one locality in the United States where nickel has been profitably mined is Riddle, Oregon , where several square miles of nickel-bearing garnierite surface deposits are located.
The mine closed in Construction was completed in , and operations began in the third quarter of Traditionally, most sulfide ores have been processed using pyrometallurgical techniques to produce a matte for further refining. Recent advances in hydrometallurgical techniques resulted in significantly purer metallic nickel product. Most sulfide deposits have traditionally been processed by concentration through a froth flotation process followed by pyrometallurgical extraction.
The nickel matte is further processed with the Sherritt-Gordon process. First, copper is removed by adding hydrogen sulfide , leaving a concentrate of cobalt and nickel. A second common refining process is leaching the metal matte into a nickel salt solution, followed by the electro-winning of the nickel from solution by plating it onto a cathode as electrolytic nickel.
The purest metal is obtained from nickel oxide by the Mond process , which achieves a purity of greater than Iron gives iron pentacarbonyl , too, but this reaction is slow. If necessary, the nickel may be separated by distillation. Dicobalt octacarbonyl is also formed in nickel distillation as a by-product, but it decomposes to tetracobalt dodecacarbonyl at the reaction temperature to give a non-volatile solid.
Nickel is obtained from nickel carbonyl by one of two processes. It may be passed through a large chamber at high temperatures in which tens of thousands of nickel spheres, called pellets, are constantly stirred. The carbonyl decomposes and deposits pure nickel onto the nickel spheres. The byproduct carbon monoxide is recirculated and reused.
University of Göttingen - Georg-August-Universität Göttingen
The highly pure nickel product is known as "carbonyl nickel". The US nickel coin contains 0. Since the face value of a nickel is 5 cents, this made it an attractive target for melting by people wanting to sell the metals at a profit.
However, the United States Mint , in anticipation of this practice, implemented new interim rules on December 14, , subject to public comment for 30 days, which criminalized the melting and export of cents and nickels. Nickel is used in many specific and recognizable industrial and consumer products, including stainless steel , alnico magnets, coinage, rechargeable batteries , electric guitar strings, microphone capsules, plating on plumbing fixtures,  and special alloys such as permalloy , elinvar , and invar.
It is used for plating and as a green tint in glass. Nickel is preeminently an alloy metal, and its chief use is in nickel steels and nickel cast irons, in which it typically increases the tensile strength, toughness, and elastic limit. It is widely used in many other alloys, including nickel brasses and bronzes and alloys with copper, chromium, aluminium, lead, cobalt, silver, and gold Inconel , Incoloy , Monel , Nimonic.
Because it is resistant to corrosion, nickel was occasionally used as a substitute for decorative silver. Nickel was also occasionally used in some countries after as a cheap coinage metal see above , but in the later years of the 20th century was replaced by cheaper stainless steel i. Nickel is an excellent alloying agent for certain precious metals and is used in the fire assay as a collector of platinum group elements PGE. As such, nickel is capable of fully collecting all six PGE elements from ores, and of partially collecting gold.
High-throughput nickel mines may also engage in PGE recovery primarily platinum and palladium ; examples are Norilsk in Russia and the Sudbury Basin in Canada. Nickel foam or nickel mesh is used in gas diffusion electrodes for alkaline fuel cells. Nickel and its alloys are frequently used as catalysts for hydrogenation reactions.
Raney nickel , a finely divided nickel-aluminium alloy, is one common form, though related catalysts are also used, including Raney-type catalysts. Nickel is a naturally magnetostrictive material, meaning that, in the presence of a magnetic field , the material undergoes a small change in length. Nickel makes the tungsten carbide magnetic and adds corrosion-resistance to the cemented parts, although the hardness is less than those with a cobalt binder.
Raney nickel is widely used for hydrogenation of unsaturated oils to make margarine , and substandard margerine and leftover oil may contain nickel as contaminant. Forte et al. Dietary nickel may affect human health through infections by nickel-dependent bacteria, but it is also possible that nickel is an essential nutrient for bacteria residing in the large intestine, in effect functioning as a prebiotic.
What is absorbed is excreted in urine. Nickel released from Siberian Traps volcanic eruptions is suspected of assisting the growth of Methanosarcina , a genus of euryarchaeote archaea that produced methane during the Permian—Triassic extinction event , the biggest extinction event on record. The major source of nickel exposure is oral consumption, as nickel is essential to plants. For example, nickel-plated faucets may contaminate water and soil; mining and smelting may dump nickel into waste-water ; nickel—steel alloy cookware and nickel-pigmented dishes may release nickel into food.
The atmosphere may be polluted by nickel ore refining and fossil fuel combustion. Humans may absorb nickel directly from tobacco smoke and skin contact with jewelry, shampoos , detergents, and coins.
A less-common form of chronic exposure is through hemodialysis as traces of nickel ions may be absorbed into the plasma from the chelating action of albumin. The average daily exposure does not pose a threat to human health. Most of the nickel absorbed every day by humans is removed by the kidneys and passed out of the body through urine or is eliminated through the gastrointestinal tract without being absorbed. Nickel is not a cumulative poison, but larger doses or chronic inhalation exposure may be toxic, even carcinogenic , and constitute an occupational hazard.
Nickel compounds are classified as human carcinogens     based on increased respiratory cancer risks observed in epidemiological studies of sulfidic ore refinery workers. People can be exposed to nickel in the workplace by inhalation, ingestion, and contact with skin or eye. The toxicity of metal carbonyls is a function of both the toxicity of the metal and the off-gassing of carbon monoxide from the carbonyl functional groups; nickel carbonyl is also explosive in air. Sensitized individuals may show a skin contact allergy to nickel known as a contact dermatitis.
Highly sensitized individuals may also react to foods with high nickel content. Nickel is the top confirmed contact allergen worldwide, partly due to its use in jewelry for pierced ears. Many earrings are now made without nickel or low-release nickel  to address this problem.
The amount allowed in products that contact human skin is now regulated by the European Union. In , researchers found that the nickel released by 1 and 2 Euro coins was far in excess of those standards. This is believed to be the result of a galvanic reaction. Reports show that both the nickel-induced activation of hypoxia-inducible factor HIF-1 and the up-regulation of hypoxia-inducible genes are caused by depletion of intracellular ascorbate. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This article is about the chemical element. For coins known as "nickels" and other uses, see Nickel disambiguation. Chemical element with atomic number Main article: Isotopes of nickel. See also: Ore genesis and Category:Nickel minerals. See also: Category:Nickel compounds. Main article: Mond process. Further information: Nickel allergy. GHS hazard statements.
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How "Old Nick's" gnomes were outwitted".
Oceanic nickel depletion and a methanogen famine before the Great Oxidation Event
Journal of Chemical Education. Bibcode : JChEd Nickel comes of age". Ore, matte, and metal".
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