What could be wrong if you are unable to view concurrent manager log and output files? Most likely listener is down.
How do you change the apps password? How do I check if Multi-org is installed? How do I check the currently installed release of applications? How to find the name of a form? How do you cancel a running concurrent request? Navigate Concurrent Request Summary form, select a request. In character, do a Quickpick on the Status column. You can select Cancel or Hold What are. What is location of. This file is used by any forms client session. Where would i find. These files are used during restart of patch in case of patch failure. US directory is default language directory in Oracle Applications.
If you have multiple languages installed in your Applications then you will see other languages directories besides US, that directory will contain reports, fmx and other code in that respective directory like FR for France, AR for arabic, simplifies chinese or spanish. How to find Version of Apache used with oracle apps 11i? How do you work with multiple oracle homes? Whatever oracle home you want to work, Source that environment file What is concurrent request? When a user runs a report, a request will be generated.
The command to run that report is called Concurrent request How do you rebuild the oraInventory? When you execute. What is the use of restore. When you run restore. What is Pasta? Pasta is the utility to install the printers. How do you kill group processes? By using awk command What is yellow bar? How to solve?
Whenever the clients are accessing the forms, due to the security problems, we get yellow bar warning. To solve this problem, copy identitydb. It reduces the burden of system This value determines when the block gets back into Free List table. What does data block header contain? The header contains general information about the data; i. The header also contains information about the table and the actual row address that holds the data.
What is Row Migration? What is Row Chaining? When a row is so large that it cannot fit into one free block, Oracle will span the data into a number of blocks so that it can hold all of the data. The existence of such data results in "Row Chaining". Row Chaining is the storage of data in a chain of blocks. What is listener. It consists of listener, port, SID name, hostname. It contains description, host, port, protocol, servicename, address. Types of checkpoints?
Full checkpoint, Incremental checkpoint, Partial checkpoint Why do we get snapshot too old error? If undo tablespace is having insufficient space, we get this error. What is profile? Profile controls the behaviour of applications What is the use of 3 Oracle Homes? What is RDA? RDA is a set of command line diagnostic scripts that are executed by an engine written in the Perl programming language. RDA is used to gather detailed information about an Oracle environment; the data gathered is in turn used to aid in problem diagnosis. The output is also useful for seeing the overall system configuration.
Oracle Support encourages the use of RDA because it provides a comprehensive picture of the customer's environment. This can greatly reduce service request resolution time by minimizing the number of requests from Oracle Customer Support for more information. RDA is designed to be as unobtrusive as possible; it does not modify systems in any way, it only collects useful data for Oracle Customer Support.
In a Multi Node Installation, how will you find which node is running what Services? Maintain Applications Files menu then select 1. Relink Applications programs when prompts for Enter list of products to link 'all' for all products [all] select FND when prompt for Generate specific executables for each selected product [No]?
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Then what do you do? What does adclone do? Also gives useful cpu usage info. What causes them? How many is too many? Is it possible to delicence a product which is fully licenced? A: AD Utilities are a group of tools designed to install, upgrade, maintain, and patch a specific set of products contained in a given release of Oracle Applications. AD Relink or adrelink allows you to relink Oracle Applications executable programs with the Oracle Server product libraries. You can run the adrelink utility manually to relink individual executable programs, or use the relink option in the AD Administration utility to relink all executable programs.
The following steps summarize the way autopatch works: 1. You log in as applmgr and run your applications environment file. Unload the new software into a patch directory and start the autopatch utility under a Bourne or Korn shell. After you answer some questions, Autopatch identifies the Oracle Applications products that need to be updated. Autopatch extracts the appropriate files from each product's C library. Autopatch compares the extracted object modules C libraries with their corresponding files in the patch directory. It also makes this type of comparison with files such as forms, reports, and SQL scripts.
If a file in the patch directory is a more recent version than the product's current file, autopatch backs up the product's current file by appending "O" to it's filename. Autopatch loads the new object modules into the C libraries. Autopatch backs up any files you listed in adlinkbk. X only Autopatch relinks the Oracle Applications products with the Oracle Database. Autopatch runs sql scripts and exec commands, which change Oracle Applications database objects. By default, autopatch does this in parallel.
Autopatch generates Oracle Forms files. Autopatch generates Oracle Reports files. Autopatch appends a record of how it changed your system to applptch. The loader reads a configuration file to determine what data to access. For information on specific configuration files consult the Open Interfaces Guide for your product group.
The following sections describe the operation of the Generic Data Loader. Parameters vary for each onfiguration file. Review the documentation for our configuration file for a list of parameters that an be set. Create new temp tablespace, assign all users temp tablespace newone. Please review articles A: Fine out the error in enterface table, rectifie the error by updateing the records in interface tablles.
Re submit the import. Explanation: When converting a tablespace from dictionary management to local management, Oracle creates bitmaps in the datafile. Therefore the required space needs to be available in the datafile. This would be too difficult to implement, since the tablespace is likely to contain the existing objects which already aviolate new policy.
For this reason, migrated tablespace only support the same allocation policy as the dictionary tablespaces. Therefore, the user does not get the policy benefits from migration, but can still get performance benefits - no ST enqueue contention and more efficient extent operations. Typical solutions are to drop and recreate the tablespace with different sized datafiles, or to add more datafiles to a tablespace. This option allows you to change the physical size of a datafile from what was specified during its creation. Increase Datafile Size II.
The size of the datafile will also be changed at the operating system level. You cannot deallocate space from a datafile that is currently being used by database objects. To remove space from a datafile, you have to have contiguous space at the END of the datafile. This means there are unused bytes at the end of our datafile, almost 2MB.
We want to leave some room for growth in our datafile, and depending on how the objects in that datafile allocate new extents, we could remove easily up to 1. If you have a large extent in the middle of a datafile, and some object taking up room at the end of the datafile, you can use the query FINDEXT. SQL to find this object. If you export this object, then drop it, you should then free up contiguous space at the end of your datafile so you will be able to resize it smaller. Make sure you leave enough room in the datafile for importing the object back into the tablespace.
SQL Script to find database object locations for a given datafile. REM findext. If you try to resize a datafile to a size smaller than is needed to contain all the database objects in that datafile, you will get an error: ORA file contains blocks of data beyond requested RESIZE value The resize operation will fail at this point. If you try to resize a datafile larger than can be created, you will also get an error. This appears as ORA errors when accessing the datafile after it has been resized. The workaround is to shutdown and restart the database after resizing a datafile a convenient time to take a backup.
This will cause the new datafile size information to be refreshed to all the dbwr slave processes. Oracle will no longer have access to ANY object that was contained in this tablespace. The physical datafile must then be removed using an operating system command Oracle NEVER physically removes any datafiles. Depending on which platform you try this on, you may not be able to physically delete the datafile until Oracle is completely shut down. For example, on Windows NT, you may have to shutdown Oracle AND stop the associated service before the operating system will allow you to delete the file - in some cases, file locks are still held by Oracle.
If you have more than one datafile in the tablespace and you wish to keep the objects that reside in the other datafile s which are part of this tablespace, then you must export all the objects inside the affected tablespace. Delete the datafiles belonging to this tablespace using the operating system. See the comment above about possible problems in doing this.
Recreate the tablespace with the datafile s desired, then import the objects into that tablespace. This may have to be done at the table level, depending on how the tablespace was organized. What the command really means is that you are offlining the datafile with the intention of dropping the tablespace. Once the datafile is offline, Oracle no longer attempts to access it, but it is still considered part of that tablespace.
This datafile is marked only as offline in the controlfile and there is no SCN comparison done between the controlfile and the datafile during startup This also allows you to startup a database with a non-critical datafile missing. The entry for that datafile is not deleted from the controlfile to give us the opportunity to recover that datafile. If you do not wish to follow any of these procedures, there are other things that can be done besides dropping the tablespace.
See 'Related Documents' below. If the datafile is resized to smaller than 5 oracle blocks, then it will never be considered for extent allocation. At some later date, the tablespace can be rebuilt to exclude the incorrect datafile. The actual invalid object name must be substituted for the as indicated above. The subquery finds all the objects that the invalid object depends on. This identifies the source package s and eliminates wasted time attempting to compile the wrong objects. Run the query once more for PKG5 which then returns zero rows.
Therefore, it is necessary to either rebuild, or determine the problems associated with PKG5 before the other two packages will compile. A: system resource memory leak etc dbx utility to examine the same. By following the steps below you can provide Oracle Support with vital information to help identify the cause of a problem. Please note that it is important to include information about the tool being used, any code involved, the operation being performed, environment etc.. What is a 'core dump'?
It is produced in the form of a file called 'core' usually located in the current directory. What causes a core dump? The most common causes of this are: The program tried to access memory outside its allowed range. The program tried to obtain a resource which was either exhausted or unavailable.
An attempt was made to execute illegal instructions. An attempt was made to read unaligned data In Unix systems the offending process is sent one of a number of signals which force a core dump to be produced. It is also possible for a user to produce a core dump by sending one of these signals to a process manually.
What should I do if I get a core dump? This command will be referred to as 'program' below. Enter the command: file program and write the result down letter for letter. If the word 'dynamic' or 'dynamically linked' appears in the output of this command then please make a note of this as there are a few platforms on which Oracle does NOT support dynamic linking and this may be the cause of your problem.
The next step will vary slightly depending on which version of Unix you are using. If you are not sure which program produced the 'core' file then on some Unix platforms the command 'file core' will tell you the executable name that the core file is from this does not work on ALL Unix platforms, see note below. Upload this to Oracle Support. If all debuggers fail then there is probably a problem with either the permissions or the file type - see the section below and then contact Oracle Support with all the details you have so far.
If this limit is too small the core file will be useless - raise the limit and reproduce the problem. Stripped Executable Some program executables are stripped of symbol information. This makes the stack trace useless. If 'file program' shows the word 'stripped' or 'nm program' shows no output then it is likely that the executable is stripped of symbolic information. In this case the problem tool must be relinked without being stripped - on most Unix platforms this involves ensuring there is no '-s' option on the link line.
Contact Oracle Support with details of the link line used to link the tool. HP Unix Some platforms like HP Unix need a special object file linking in at link time to ensure symbols in shared objects can be reported by the debug tool. The location of this special file may be different depending on your HPUX version.
Identifying the Oracle database datafile maxsize on a given platform There are always some ambiguity on the datafile size limit on a given platform and version of the database. Here is a simple way of identifying to what size a datafile can grow maximum and then switch to the next datafile. So technically this must be the maximum filesize that oracle can presumably understand for a database datafile.
The above shows that the dependency is on the database block size for a given platform. Shrink the rollback segment and then re-run the report or assign private rollback segment to report 35 How do i see what is there in redolog files?? Concepts There are two circumstances when this can occur, the data for a row in a table may be too large to fit into a single data block.
This can be caused by either row chaining or row migration. Chaining Occurs when the row is too large to fit into one data block when it is first inserted. In this case, Oracle stores the data for the row in a chain of data blocks one or more reserved for that segment. Row chaining in these cases is unavoidable. Migration Occurs when a row that originally fitted into one data block is updated so that the overall row length increases, and the block's free space is already completely filled.
In this case, Oracle migrates the data for the entire row to a new data block, assuming the entire row can fit in a new block. Oracle preserves the original row piece of a migrated row to point to the new block containing the migrated row: the rowid of a migrated row does not change. When a row is chained or migrated, performance associated with this row decreases because Oracle must scan more than one data block to retrieve the information for that row.
This command collects information about each migrated or chained row and places this information into a specified output table. When detecting migration and chaining of rows you should analyze carrefully what you are dealing with. When you have a lot of chained rows in different tables and the average row length of these tables is not that large, then you might consider rebuilding the database with a larger blocksize.
Different tables have multiple large varchar columns with an average row length of more than 2K. Then this means that you will have a lot of chained rows because you block size is too small. Rebuilding the database with a larger block size can give you a significant performance benefit.
To avoid migration, all tables that are updated should have their PCTFREE set so that there is enough space within the block for updates. If you leave more free space available in the block for updates, then the row will have more room to grow. This error is normal as you cannot do a CTAS when you have long raws. Also, by the nature of the long raw datatype, chaining is unavoidable. After creating the database, decide whether to change from the initial archiving mode. After a database has been created, you can switch the database's archiving mode on demand.
However, you should generally not switch the database between archiving modes. NOTE: If a database is automatically created during Oracle installation, the initial archiving mode of the database is operating system specific. See your operating system-specific Oracle documentation. Shut down the database instance. Archiving cannot be disabled if any datafiles need media recovery. Backup the database. This backup can be used with the archive logs that you will generate.
Perform any operating system specific steps optional. Start up a new instance and mount, but do not open the database. Switch the database's archiving mode. Open the database. Verify your database is now in archivelog mode. Archive all your redo logs at this point. Ensure these newly created Archive log files are added to the backup process. However, once automatic archiving is disabled, you must manually archive groups of online redo log files in a timely fashion.
LGWR cannot reuse any inactive groups of online redo log groups to continue writing redo log entries. Therefore, database operation is temporarily suspended until the necessary archiving is performed. Automatic archiving can be disabled at or after instance startup. The instance does not have to be shut down to disable automatic archiving. NOTE: If you choose to disable automatic archiving and have not disabled archiving altogether, you are responsible to archive all filled redo log groups or else database operation is temporarily suspended you will experience a database hang until the necessary archiving is performed.
You can manually archive groups of the online redo log whether or not automatic archiving is enabled. If automatic archiving is not enabled, you must manually archive groups of filled online redo log files in a timely fashion. If all online redo log groups are filled but not archived, LGWR cannot reuse any inactive groups of online redo log members to continue writing redo log entries. You can exercise this scenario by executing alter system switch logfile command when automatic archival is disabled. If automatic archiving is enabled, but you want to rearchive an inactive group of filled online redo log members to another location, you can use manual archiving.
However, the instance can decide to reuse the redo log group before you have finished manually archiving, thereby overwriting the files. To manually archive a filled online redo log group, you must be connected with administrator privileges. You want to turn archiving off for a period of time and then turn it on to continue archiving without bouncing your database.
They do not turn archiving off or on. The following test shows that the database will eventually hang if you issue this command. Database opened. At this point the DB hangs because automatic archiving is disabled. When all redo logs are full this was simulated by switching logs , another log file switch will not occur until the log files are MANUALLY archived, or automatic archiving is enabled.
After issuing this command the full redo logs are archived, the log switch occurs, the database is no longer hung, and the first session returns to the Server Manager prompt. Changing the database to run in noarchivelog mode will turn off archiving. So adding the archive file sizes during a hour period will give us the amount of redo generated. Oracle just hangs. The cause of the problem is automatic archiving is disabled. When the databse is in archive log mode and the redo logs fill up, no activity will be allowed until the log files are archived. If the database is not archiving automatically, activity will cease until the redo logs are manually archived.
A better option is to modify the init. This parameter enables automatic archiving and prevents you from needing to manually archive redo logs every time they fill up. A responsibility is a level of authority in Oracle Applications that lets users access only those Oracle Applications functions and data appropriate to their roles in an organization. This is a unique name for a responsibility that is used by loader programs.
Loaders are concurrent programs used to load such information as messages, user profiles and user profile values into your Oracle Applications tables. To help ensure that your responsibility key is unique throughout your system, begin each Responsibility Key name with the application short name associated with this responsibility.
A request security group defines the concurrent programs, including requests and request sets, that may be run by an application user under a particular responsibility. A menu is a hierarchical arrangement of application functions forms that displays in the Navigate window. Menus can also point to non form functions subfunctions that do not display in the Navigate window, but that define the range of application functionality available for a responsibility. Each responsibility is associated with a menu. Run the following scripts as sys user jvmsec3. Login to Core forms based Applications as the user determined in step 2, Or as a user that has the responsibility determined in step 3 assigned to them.
Select Global Preferences from the Workflow Menu 6. If the values in the database are incorrect you can upload the values from the wfcfg. Added the following line in jserv. Unable to start the express instance?? For Windows 98 machines: 1 open a note pad 2 put the following entries in the notepad Redo logs should be sized based upon 2 factors: 1 Are you archiving 2 How often are your logs switching If you are archiving You need to size the logs such that log switches occur no LESS than every 5 minutes You also need to make sure that logs are not switching too infrequently The reason we recommend this is in case the online redo log becomes corrupt and the DB has to be recovered point in time to the last log switch Since recovery is not possible when not archiving a long time between switches really becomes irrelivant Bottom line you are trying to hit a happy medium between requiring use of a stale log before it is finished switching switching logs too fast and having too long of a time between switches If you need further assistance on this issue.
Please feel free to post a reply and we will be happy to assist you It is better to make the redo logs much bigger and then run a cron script to force a log switch every so often during the slow periods. This way the heavy periods do not bog down due to a bunch of log switches and the light periods are broken up by the forced switches. On our systems we force a log switch every 15 minutes. Example: from 8am to 5pm force a switch every 15 min from 5pm to midnight force a swithc every hour from midnight to 8am dont force a switch I dont know if this can be done with CRON Most likely this is due to your logs switching too quickly If archiving you want to switch no less than ever 5 min ie adjust the size of your redo logs If not archiving you want to make sure that you have sufficiently sized or sufficient number of redo log groups such that when a log switch occurs that you are not trying to switch into a 'stale' log 59 How to find the paging space in AIX system??
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Lsdev -Cc processor 63 How to estimate of the percentage of cpu and memory utilized by each process currently running ps av 64 how to determining how much paging activity is taking place on the system. Oftentimes as part of upgrading Forms or modifying a Form module or applying a patch modifying a Form module, you would encounter an issue that would necessitate manually regenerating the Forms module executable or FMX file.
Apps forms are regenerated, some are true some are not: After an operating system upgrade? False After a database upgrade? False After applying a Developer patch? After applying an Apps patch? True, but only if there is a g driver involved. Support will then determine if it? You can alter the interface look and feel of Apps forms by changing the values of the following variables in the appsweb.
In your httpd. Currently Forms load balancing is done through proprietary programs called Metric Server and Metric Clients. The Metric clients are setup on machines with a corresponding Forms server and they constantly report to a Metric Server their load situation. The Metric Server then uses this information to decide which machine to pass a request to run a web form.
Metalink Note Once Forms servlet is supported in Apps, load balancing will no longer be done via Metrics Servers and Metric Clients. In the current Form Services architecture a firewall needs be configured to allow traffic on 2 ports. The Oracle HTTP server handles the initial request, authentication to the server, and presents a list of responsibilities for the end user to choose from.
Self Service applications will continue to use only this listener, but if a core application is invoked, the client makes a request to the Forms Listener that then creates a new Forms Server Runtime process. In the new Forms Servlet architecture the only port that needs to be open is the Oracle HTTP 80 Note down some important profile options in sysadmin point of view??? The f60webmx is your web forms runtime executable, similar to f60webm except that it has Apps specific user exits linked into 82 How can you recreate the f60webmx executable?
Note that there might be times when you you need to generate a stack trace from the f60webmx process. For the trace to have meaninful info the executable needs to have been created with debugging symbols. Also be aware that FRD incurs significant overhead to Apps processing so disable it when not in use. To turn off the color of the required item you can either change the value of app. You have to restart Jinitiator for this to take effect. Purpose The article should provide you with a step-by-step guide on how to create a custom event alert, which will fire when a row in a custom table is updated.
The update can be the result of an insert or update DML statement. The article assumes a novice or beginner level. Overview of Event Alerts An event alert is a database trigger that tells you when data in an object within the database has been changed.
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Event alerts can be configured to trigger an action, like sending an email to a user. You may use event alerts to audit changes to standard Oracle Applications objects or custom objects in user defined database schemas. However, you should note that the when you use Oracle Alerts to define database triggers, the event alert will only work from within the context of the Oracle Applications. For example, any database event that affects the objects made from within a form accessed by a menu from within an Oracle Application Responsibility is within the context of Oracle Applications.
Likewise, any registereed concurrent manager process or report, whether executed from within the Oracle Application form or executed from the command line is within the context of Oracle Applications. If you want to build an alert to fire against a custom table, then you will need the following information. Unfortunately, it is not found in the Oracle Alert User's Guide. The article provides the following information: a. How to create and register a customer schema in the Oracle Applications.
How to register the Oracle Alert against the custom table. Create a Custom Schema, Table and Responsibility You may find additional reference to setting up a custom schema in [NOTE The following provides a step-by-step approach to creating a customer application and registering it within Oracle Applications. First, you must create the schema within the database. If you would like to follow the Oracle Application guidelines for naming conventions, please name your schema with a three character name, like "CUS" - Customer.
When you register your custom application within the Application Object Library. It is recommended that you prepend an "XX" to the custom schema short name so it will not conflict with any future Oracle Application short names. The Application Object Library is a repository of Oracle Application specific metadata, which is data that defines data, or data that lets you extend the functionality of standard Oracle Application System Administration to your customized extensions.
You can register the user with the Application Object Library. You can now build an object, in the example the object will be a table with a single column, and a local stored database object, which will be a stored procedure in this example. You can create a stored code module like the one shown below. Based on the preceeding example, you should create your custom tables, indexes, views and sequences. The Oracle Coding standards suggest that you add the WHO audit columns to the definition of the tables and views. If you are unfamiliar with the concept of WHO audit columns, they are the defined here for your convenience: General Who-Audit Columns a.
The general form and example syntax is noted below. For convenience, the general form illustrates only the mandatory parameters. Below you will find the necessary grants and synonyms required for the sample objects to be accessible by the Oracle Applications. Then, as System Administrator you should do the following steps. The next section discusses how you can create the alert in Oracle Alerts. Create the Custom Event Alert This section will guide you through creating your test event alert based on the example in the first section above.
DUAL; 2. You can now click on the Action Button and create the detail action for your event alert, by the following steps: a. You can click on action details: At this point, you can choose an action type, like a message and complete the message detail. NOTE: The article assumes that the integration between Oracle Applications and an operating system mail server is already configured correctly.
You can navigate back to the main Alert Definition form, and click on the Action Set button, which will allow you to enter a new action set. Below is a basic example consistent with the example code in this entry. You should sign-on to the Oracle Application and navigate to the submit Concurrent Request form. After submitting the Concurrent Request, you should close the Concurrent Request form, click on "View My Requests" and check that the request completed without error. If custom Applications are not integrated properly, problems can occur with alerts, reports, requests, programs, etc It is recommended that you develop the custom applications code by following the standards exactly as described in the Oracle Applications Developers Guide and the Oracle Applications User Interface Standards manual.
Deviations from these standards can have unpredictable results. Oracle Applications Release 11i is a multi-tier architecture that allows functions to be distributed among multiple tiers of servers desktop client, forms server and the database server. Procedure 1. Register your custom application with the Application Object Library. It is recommended to use an XX as the preface to the custom schema short name so that it does not conflict with any future Oracle Application short names.
Use the basepath parameter from the Application registration for the top level directory. The subdirectories under the custom directory may vary depending on the server type forms server, concurrent processing server, etc Modify the applications environmental file example: VIS. Register the custom schema as an Oracle user. Register the user with the Application Object Library.
Add the custom schema to a data group. This depends upon your own requirements. Create your custom tables, indexes, views and sequences. It is suggested that you add WHO columns to your custom tables so that Oracle Applications can keep track of customizations. Follow the form development steps which incorporate the development standards that are described in the Oracle Application Developers Guide.
You will modify the form as needed, move the generated form to its proper directory, register the form with the Oracle Application Object Library and then add it to a menu. The following examples assume you are developing on the forms server. If the forms are being developed on a Windows client refer to Note In the forms designer attach any additional libraries to your custom form.
Modify the form as desired following the development standards. You will be setting the properties of container and widget objects, creating window layout, coding table handler, item handler, event handler and code logic, enabling querying behavior, coding messaging, adding flexfield logic and coding any other appropriate logic. Test the form by itself. Create either a static html file that calls your form directly instead of the usual signon form or create a dynamic html file and cartridge. Register your form. Register the form as a function. If needed, register subfunctions per the functionality that you require.
Click on "Description" in the popup list. It will automatically be filled in when you enter the form name in the Form field.
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Add your custom functions forms and subfunctions to an existing menu or create a new one. The menu will be tied to a responsibility. Be sure to add the responsibility to a user. Test the form from within Applications. Create a subdirectory for your help files using the application short name. Create a subdirectory under your help files subdirectory to hold the links files. The links allow Oracle Applications to find the correct help files.
Create your online help html files. Include the html target tags of the form near the beginning of the file. The target name is comprised of the form name and the window name. Create your links file. The links file stores the connection between the target and target in the destination html file.
You will have one links file for each form and it will be named after the form. Copy an existing Oracle Applications links file to your links subdirectory and modify it. If desired, a link to your custom application can be added to the Oracle Applications online help file, library. Create your message dictionary. Make sure you have a message mesg subdirectory under your custom applications basepath.
Define your messages following the message standards. Create the message files. If needed make a copy of the generated file located on the server and transfer the copy to the appropriate mesg directory for the custom application on the client system. Code the logic to set up messages. Code the logic to display messages.
You will either display the message to a user on the client or write it to a file on the server. Set up your concurrent processing for your Custom Schema. Write the concurrent program execution file and place it in the appropriate directory. Define the concurrent program executable with the Oracle Application Object Library. This links the execution file and the method used to execute it with a defined concurrent program.
Define the concurrent program with the Oracle Application Object Library along with any program parameters or any incompatibilities. Add the request functionality for your concurrent program. To use the run reports form, just add the submit request window to your custom menu so that you have access to the Standard Request Submission interface SRS.
This is not the same as the Forms server log file which not only logs startup and shutdown info but also client connectivity which client IP is associated with which f60webm process and debug stack trace info. Profile Options Concurrent Manager 1. Concurrent: Active Request Limit Value: Numeric This profile options will restrict the number of concurrent requests that may be run simultaneously by each user.
If you do not specify a limit, then no limit is imposed. For example, when a user submits a request and uses the 'Defining Completion Options' region to specify people to be notified, a notification is sent each of the people designated. Concurrent: Conflicts Domain Values: LOV list of values: domains This option identifies the domain within which all the incompatibilities between programs has to be resolved 5. Concurrent: Debug Flags This option is used to debug the transactions managers. You should only use this option at the request of Oracle Support. Concurrent: Directory for Copy You can identify a directory on your operating system to store copies of your report output or log files.
This directory is used when a copy operation is requested in character mode of the applications. Users cannot see or alter this profile option. The PMON method refers to the process monitor. The Internal Concurrent Manager ICM monitors the individual concurrent managers' processes to verify the managers are running. To change the profile option setting, you must execute the SQL script "afimpmon.
This option can be set by a system administrator or by the user. Concurrent: Report Copies Values: Numeric This option determines the number of default copies that print for each submitted concurrent request. Requests normally run according to a start time on a first submitted, first run basis.
Priority overrides this request start time. A higher priority request starts before an earlier request. This option displays the default priority for you concurrent requests. Only a system administrator can change your request priority. Set this option to NO if you have multiple requests to submit and do not wish to see the Request Summary form after each submission.
This option specifies how long in minutes the URL is to be kept active. Concurrent: Wait for Available TM Value: Numeric TM Transaction Manager Use this option to specify the number of minutes that a client will wait for a given transaction manager to become available before trying a different transaction manager.
Invalid objects can and will occur for many reasons. Invalid objects are usually caused by missing grants, synonyms, views, tables or packages, but can also be caused by corrupted packages. Compiling invalid objects on your database is almost the equivalent of running scandisk on a PC hard drive. This should be one of the first things you check if you start experiencing problems with your Oracle database. It is also a good idea to schedule regular checks for invalid objects. When you call in to Oracle Support with a database or installation issue, one of the first questions they will probably ask is whether you have checked for and resolved any invalid objects.
If the invalid objects exist for a product or application that is not installed, it may be ok to have some, but it is preferable to have no invalid objects existing at all. If invalid objects exist for a product or application that you do have installed and are using, then it should be considered unacceptable and any existing invalid objects should be resolved before further issues can occur. There is no set number of invalid objects that could be considered 'acceptable' as each situation will vary widely from one database to the next.
You could just have a few invalid objects or they could number in the hundreds or even thousands, but every effort should be made to resolve them one way or another. There are times when invalid objects have occurred where you may opt to simply delete them, but you must ensure that they are in a product or application that is not used. If you encounter an ORA error while running adcompsc. If the number has decreased, but you still have invalid objects, you should run adcompsc. Keep running adcompsc. Script The symptom of the bug is that responsibility names are not translated properly for non-Standard data groups.
A: There must be some flag in ipcs command which gives NATTCH which is the number of processes attached to it,refer to the man pages of ipcs command. The procedures are valid for AIX version 4. Start up the SMIT utility. Select 'System Environments'. This is beneficial when you use a remote database only for one time or when your tnsnames.
This note describes the various aspects of measuring the actual size. Such utilities can imply alarmingly large process sizes. These topics are covered in more detail below. These are mapped only once into memory, and not once per process. As such, these are not part of the incremental cost of spawning a new Oracle process.
Unfortunately, commands such as 'ps' and 'top' include TEXT sizes when measuring private data. Further, the SGA size can also be included, giving a wildly inaccurate figure for the private data of a server process. Some operating systems provide better tools for measuring process sizes. CMD 8 S usupport 0 55 20 62f4a0b8 Instead, this memory is still associated with the process, until such time that the operating system runs low on free memory, and starts to take freed pages back. Consequently, operating system utilities can report process sizes to be larger than they really are.
In Oracle terminology, a heap is a managed area of memory. To the operating system, this is just another piece of memory allocated to an application. The purpose of these heaps is unimportant in the context of this note. For example, the following init. A specialist utility such as 'pmap' should be used to get a more accurate figure. Even this may be misleading, as the operating system may not have reclaimed previously freed memory. If such a query shows a session's memory usage constantly increasing over time, without levelling off, then there may be a memory leak of some description.
For example, a process may be allocating memory for a particular repeated operation, but not freeing it in between. A memory leak would typically result in a large process size that cannot be explained by the related init. Identify the problem session 2. Once the memory usage starts to increase, get multiple heapdumps say a maximum of five , separated by a time period that will highlight the increase. This will potentially lead to a large trace file, so be aware of this when deciding when to dump the heaps, and how often.
An indication of what the client process is doing. Oracle document says that it can be done for a table or user by user. But usually this gives an error. More specially if you are using Policy. I am listing a way to achieve this for the whole database. Source database on Oracle 9i 1. Ftp the catexp. Apply the Oracle 8i catexp. Now take an export of oracle 9i database and ftp to oracle 8i installation.
Target database on Oracle 8i Import the export file into Oracle 8i database. It will export successfully. Reason for error: There are some export catalog views in Oracle 9i which are not compitable with Oracle 8i. I have used process successfully. Using some of tools data for current month are loaded into a reporting database which holds the historical as well as current month end data Corporate Reporting.
Processing the data via database link sometimes cause a performance problem. Also we were storing the duplicate data for reference only. To avoid db-link performance , duplicating data etc.. I came with idea to implement which is supported by oracle of "Sharing Tablespace Data Between Different Databases" and it works. Also both databases should be on same server and their versions should be same. DB1 is databases which holds the data and it should be shared with DB2 databases. Insert few records You can access the data from both database; How to find the file size greater than 2Gb?
In 9I implement the same in sqlnet. Add the following lines if you want to invite only the following client machine to connect TCP. Filesize greater than 2Gb is always been a problem at most of OS. All rights reserved. Connected to: Oracle8i Enterprise Edition Release 8. Observation : I observer file exp1. Now you have three export files exp1.
Import terminated successfully without warnings. Prior to 8I create a named pipe mknod exp. Pratical example. Let us consider a table samtest in scott user. Now we will determine rowchaining in it and the way to eliminiate it. I am discussing here insert delete method. To avoid row-chaining set pctfree and pctused correctly. The row moves to another block when it is not able to fit in the same block. If you have more update on the table set pctfree more to make room in the block for increase in the size of the row after updation.
Grant succeeded. Synonym created. Library created. Package body created. One rate covers a simple port, another rate covers a rapid port, and a third rate covers migration plans, with additional rates for training and maintenance. The window for this opportunity is open now, but it may close within the next five years as corporations update their legacy data.
The Internet provides a new economic environment with many new opportunities. Traditional profit models may not be the best. XML provides a significant new twist on a cutting edge technology and encourages experimenting with new profit models 5. Although most Internet activities have profit potential, any new venture can fail when not managed. Therefore, make sure that any department or company that engages in e-business also has financial accountability for its efforts. In addition, continue to assess and measure various e-business initiatives to learn from failures and to extract best practices from successes.
The idea of failing quickly cannot be overemphasized. Assume success, but plan for failure, then learn, regroup, and try again. The new paradigm for e-business is collaboration and relationships. Collaboration with partners, collaboration with vendors, collaboration with customers, and even collaboration with competitors. These collaborations should bring new opportunities to the relationship that are profitable or at least beneficial for all parties.
Partnering and collaboration imply equal sharing of benefits. Determine if collaboration, and what type of collaboration, would benefit your company. There are different types of collaborations. Procurement collaborations, benefit the major partners, but do not detract from the competitive environment. Collaborators agree on certain standards in the supply chain, but how these standards are leveraged within the corporation is up to each company.
Any way that companies can collaborate and make profits is possible. Strategic collaborations allow a group of companies to gain a larger foothold in a marketplace. These alliances can lead to dominance in the marketplace, raising the red flag of monopoly to the government.
They provide a guide for requirements, analysis, and implementation needed for applying XML to a small, trade study type of activity. XML is all about data, so the most logical first step is to construct a data model of the project. A process map of the data flow would also be handy. The data model provides the guidance needed to create the data elements that are used to define the tags in the XML documents. Step 2: Data Elements. The data model provides a list of data types used in the project.
The data types have interrelationships that can be represented as a hierarchy. Some data types may be combined with others to form a more general data type. Perform the analysis to address these issues. Then create a set of XML data element types that correspond to the project data types from the data model. Step 3: Draft DTDs. Use the data element types to draft a set of documents type definitions DTDs or schemas. It is outside of the scope of this book to describe the details of programming DTDs or schemas, but there are plenty of excellent books for the interested developer.
One of the major goals of XML is interoperability, so explore existing standards before building new ones. Compare the draft DTD to existing industry DTDs and schemas and attempt to modify the draft to match the industry standards. It is terrific if industry standards will fit the project, but be prepared for a combined solution that uses industry parts and draft parts.
Then create the final DTD or schema. Step 5: Create DTDs. This step is essentially the same as Step 3. After they have been integrated, build a test XML document and validate it. Step 6: Apply Parser. The way to validate the XML document is to run it through a parser. The parser will either generate a hierarchy or an error. After all errors are debugged, the XML document will parse with no problems and will be validated in relation to the DTD. A valid XML document is ready for use. Steps 7, 8, and 9 are closely woven details for using an XML document. It is not necessary to use all steps or even use them in order.
However, each step provides useful experience. The output of a DOM is a hierarchy that is useful for other applications that locate data and relationships within the XML document. Step 8: Apply XSL. However, example scripts are always popping up all over the Web. Step 9: Apply Application. This step is unique to the business. The application can be inventory tracking, database manipulation, or spreadsheet analysis, etc. This step is important for gaining experience with the capabilities of XML.
Database access is a good candidate application to explore because databases are a core part of business data repositories and e-business capabilities. Step Distribute by Using XLink. This step is wishful thinking. At the time of this writing, XLink is about to be released as a standard. The general information is available, but specific implementations are hard to come by.
IBM and Intel may also have information when it is available. A developer who has gone through all of these steps has accomplished a great deal. EDI was where e-commerce truly began. By using EDI, a company could build electronic communication and business transaction systems that processed orders and transferred invoices between organizations. The interactions were transacted over privately leased lines as opposed to the open Web networking. EDI was an important method of communicating data transactions between companies. Before the Web, this was the main digital form of B2B. To summarize, in comparison to EDI, B2B communications are real time, automated, and open to the world.
An EDI implementation was based on an explicit two-step agreement between two companies. First, a specific industry or a group of cooperating companies negotiated on the data element types and formats used for the transactions. Second, the transactions and data formats were implemented in the EDI systems.
Because of the complexity of the EDI implementations, each trading and transaction agreement was specific to a set of partners. With each new set of trade agreements and business partners came a new EDI application. B2B is typically an open and unlimited trading agreement that can change fluidly and dynamically. EDI was also based on building a consensus among trading partners.
On the Internet, this is a near impossibility, given the global nature and culture differences among partners. Business-To-Business e-commerce is based on an ephemeral community of trading partners, vendors, and suppliers, who join and leave the community as needed. Because of the cost and complexity of EDI systems, companies are looking to XML as a method for cheaper and simpler data transfer. These noble design goals barely hint at the transactions typical of EDI, and they are silent on e-commerce.
However, developers can exploit XML to define business meta-data, vocabularies, rules, and transactions. They gradually incorporate lessons and best practices from EDI experiences and make adjustments in the B2B e-commerce model to accommodate these experiences and practices. As an industry standard for expressing structured data, XML will open key markets such as advanced database searching, on-line banking, e-business, and other fields.
Extraordinary opportunities result from sharing actual data rather than simply presenting the data. XML revolutionizes end-user functionalities on the Internet by implementing a rich array of business applications. These DTDs will help corporations exchange information between customers and suppliers. Development tools are being developed, but there is a growing need for more tools that support collaborative Web sites. Legacy data is another area of opportunity. Tools for generating XML data from legacy database information and from existing user interfaces will fill a significant need.
As a corporation collects lessons learned during an XML implementation, the tools and experience developed during the effort might be shared with other corporations for considerable profit. Dumas, M. Dunn, C. Hohpe, G. Naick, I. Solomon, H. The study used the correlation chart and the variance analysis in order to identify essential aspects which influence the demand for green produce.
The obtained results are useful for producers and other economic agents who turn into account green produce. When it comes to the used research methods, they differ very much according to the targeted groups, the purposes and the targeted market segments. The analysis techniques used in agricultural marketing researches are a useful work instrument and when they are used for the study of the green produce consumption they facilitate a better knowledge of the distinctive elements of this market, which is at its starting point in Romania.
The statistic investigation was based on a phone interview with the persons wiling to answer for 15 minutes to a questionnaire with 12 questions [Burja, ]. The questions and the choices of answers have several goals. Another goal of the marketing research is to identify the significant influence factors of the demand for green produce consumption.
By selecting the family income as a determinant factor for the frequency with which the Romanian consumers manifest on the market, a part of the collected information refers to the time frames in which the consumers supply themselves with produce and the income group they belong to. The question regarding the type of the preferred farm produce question no. Among the reasons why green products are not bought question no. In return, the main green produce consumers have a high knowledge level regarding ecological issues and they choose these products because they are less harmful for the health and for the environment question no.
So far as the green produce consumers are satisfied with their quality, they will inform their friends about them and thus extend the range of potential buyers question no. As for the acquisition frequency for green produce, it varies a lot, most buyers stock up monthly, followed by those who buy every two months question no. Not knowing the harm that some elements found in traditional products can have on the human health, like additives, preservatives or genetically modified organisms, they purchase many of these products, and this can be an explanation for the low demand for green products question no.
From the gathered answers arises that approximately two thirds of the green produce buyers have a medium income for a big family question no. The last question of the questionnaire gathers information about the possible observations the buyers have and shows that a large number recommends a better marketing for green produce as a method to promote their characteristics and advantages. Another observation is the necessity to extend their commercialization in other types of stores, rather than just supermarkets and hypermarkets.
The incomes are separated in three groups — low incomes, medium incomes and high incomes — and the supply period, which has amplitude set between 0 and days, is studied for 12 spans of time, each group having a 10 days period. The information collected about the statistic collectivity is structured in table no. Table 1. The connection between the studied variables seems to be powerful enough because the frequencies have an agglomerate display around the diagonal of the chart. For the statistic populations studied on the basis of a few collected data, we can use the variance analysis to underline the relations between their statistical characteristics statistical variables , which is also useful in estimating the effect generated by an independent variable over the dependent variable.
For the variables which have a numeric expression, the variance analysis techniques allow the material measurement of the influence that the independent characteristic has over the resulted variable. If the statistical observation program includes the recording of statistical characteristics expressed in words, then with the help of the variance analysis we will find out if there is a determination relation between different defining characteristics of the collectivity and the studied phenomenon.
The variance analysis models, known under the name of F test, were introduced by the statistician R. The use of the variance analysis needs to cover a few phases which are exemplified below [Voineagu, ]. Although the domestic demand for green produce is relatively low, an encouraging factor is the fact there are a number of people who demand green products and thus contribute to the functioning of this market segment.
Another cause for the low demand can also be the insufficient knowledge regarding green agriculture, the differences between green products and conventional ones, the benefits for the health and the environment which the green produce has, etc. The current segmentation of the green produce market in Romania registers in the European model of consumption, which means there are a small number of buyers who purchase regularly green products and a large number of buyers who only buy them occasionally [Niggli, ].
So far as the consumers opt for ecological solutions, a behaviour of specific ecological consumption will also be formed, so that at a general level a shift of the economic actions towards performance aspects takes place [Danciu, ]. In close connection with the birth of an ecological behaviour we find their correct information, meaning a responsible attitude of the companies towards the production and commercialization of green produce [Istudor, ].
The improvement of the ecological practices of the producers and of the consumers becomes a potential source for a comparative economic advantage, which has beneficial consequences for the economical and ecological efficiency [Lozada, ]. In the future, as the awareness degree about the importance of consuming healthier products improves and as the concerns of the economic agents from the green sector grow, we can foresee a development of the green produce market in Romania and the growth of the agricultural sector contribution to putting into effect the concept of sustainable development.
Burja, C. Danciu, V. Istudor, N. Lozada, H. Niggli, U. Savvides Savvakis, C. Voineagu, V. Zanoli, R. The Code of Ethics stipulates four fundamental principles, as follows: integrity, constitutes the base for the trust granted to internal auditors; objectivity, directly related to independence; confidentiality, absolutely necessary, except for certain situations stipulated by law; competence, which implies ongoing updating of theoretical and practical knowledge.
The Code of Ethics is binding for the internal auditor profession, since, at the end of the internal audit activity, the internal auditors, based on the tests and analyses carried out, express their opinion on the quality of the internal control system of the audited activity. The thoroughness of the professional judgement adopted by the internal auditors throughout the missions is even more obvious, since they manage not to use the permissive parts of the International Standards of internal audit.
In case, throughout their mandate, the internal auditors do not comply with the provisions of the Code of Ethics, the credibility of their opinions is questioned, with negative consequences on the audited entity. From an ethimological point of view, the term "ethics" comes from Greek, and is the equivalent of the word "ethos" which means character.
And the character is the totality of the fundamental psychical features of the human being. According to modern interpretation, ethics is a set of moral values or principles, which represents a reference point when people act in a certain way. The Josephson American Ethics Institute defined the following ethical principles: 1 Credibility is the aggregated outcome of the following factors: a Honesty which means acting in good faith with the view to highlighting the truth.
In practice, a person is considered respectful when they treat those in the environment around them with consideration and accepts the different opinions and individual beliefs of the others without prejudice. To have an equitable behaviour means to approach identically two or several similar situations. Taking into account the above-mentioned, we may consider that compliance with the Code of Ethics represents the assurance that the information included in the internal audit reports is reliable, therefore it is useful for the management of the entity.
In Romania, internal auditors have a pre-established role in the evaluation of the control systems and in the promotion of the internal audit function. Personal ethical principles Fundamental principles of the Code of Faultless morality Integrity Desire to be respected Independence Freedom to think and act Objectivity Confidentiality Discretion Profesional competence at international standards Focus on professional Ethical behaviour Political neutrality development Figure 1.
Following the analysis of the code of ethics, we think that among all the fundamental principles governing the internal audit activity, the most important ones are independence associated to the professional competence. Independence and objectivity derive from the use of personal qualities of each internal auditor.
In case the internal auditor undertakes their activity based on some principles such as: freedom of thinking and acting without accepting any external bias, focus on professional training, these ones may be considered principles of the Code of Ethics for the Internal Auditor. The activity carried out by the internal auditors is very demanding, i. Under these circumstances, internal auditors should have a moral and professional attitude above that imposed by law, which is a requirement in order to have the management confide in the services they provide.
Taking into account the aspects presented before, we consider justified the endeavours carried out by various bodies in the field of internal audit, to develop a Code of Ethics for internal auditors, which, alongside professional norms, should facilitate the undertaking of internal audit missions at a high performance level. There are other factors which contribute to this, such as: - an overall quality assurance and improvement programme for the internal audit activity, - a supervision procedure, throughout the internal audit mission, by an experienced auditor which is not directly involved in the mission, - professional training programmes etc.
Also, the internal audit activity helps the entity to achieve its objectives though a systematic and disciplined approach, by evaluating and improving the performance of risk management, control and governance processes. Since , The Standards of the Institute of Internal Auditors - IIA and the Code of Ethics have established the required behaviour, principles and the approach which internal auditors apply in their activity.
Being adopted by the international organisations in the public and the private sectors, as well as by the IIA members, the Standards and the Code of Ethics are the base of the internal audit profession and represent a criterion of quality assessment.
By complying with the IIA Standards and the Code of Ethics, the internal auditors may provide and independent and effective consultancy and assurance service to the entity. Standards describe the nature of the internal audit and the characteristics of the structures undertaking internal audit activities. At the same time, they offer quality criteria to assess the performance of the internal audit against. Internal audit function should be independent and internal auditors should be objective when they undertake internal audit activities.
All internal audits should be carried out with competence and due diligence. The Code of Ethics is more than a definition of internal audit, including two major components: - Fundamental principles suitable for the internal audit profession and practice; - Conduct rule, describing the norms for expected behaviour from internal auditors.
The Code of Ethics stipulates four fundamental principles, as follows: - integrity, constitutes the base for the trust granted to internal auditors; - objectivity, directly related to independence; - confidentiality, absolutely necessary, except for certain situations stipulated by law; - competence, which implies ongoing updating of theoretical and practical knowledge. Ethical principles rely on 12 rules of conduct, which may be presented in brief as follows: - to undertake the missions correctly; - to comply with the law; - not to take part in illegal activities; - to respect the ethics; - to be unbiased; - not to accept anything which might compromise of influence decisions; - to highlight significant facts; - to protect the information; - not to pursue personal benefits; - to do only what can be done; - to focus on competence improvement; - to respect the standards in the field.
These rules of conduct guide the internal auditors throughout the mission and represent a due diligence path which internal auditors should follow. Of course, their application into practice is not easy, especially in a transition period from one system to another, when the issues related to ethics are shadowed by the priorities related to setting up the primary capital in a competition-based market economy, a situation faced by Romania today. However, throughout their mandate, internal auditors should not deviate from these principles, as, if not, the internal audit function will no longer achieve its purpose stipulated in the standards.
This aspect is not neglected by the internal auditor when they collect and process information, evaluate internal control systems, and express their opinion on this assessment. This is why, throughout an internal audit mission, the audit team should develop an environment which should provide trust on the activities undertaken. Under these circumstances, they should be very careful as regards the activity undertaken, since they should not take intentionally part in illegal activities or engage in dishonouring acts to the internal audit profession or to the entity they are part of.
Throughout their mandate the internal auditor should be consistent in thoughts and actions. We consider that, when the internal auditor accepts exaggerated services from the audited structure, they can no longer have the image of a person working in accordance with the law and professional rules, in the eyes of the staff in that department.
Also, the internal auditor should make proof of ongoing use of audit tools and techniques. For instance, during an audit mission, where the auditor should audit identical activities undertaken by different people, the auditor should audit only one activity, which they consider to have the maximum risk associated.
Even if the internal auditor is not bound to justify their activity, at the end of the audit mission they should imply to the audited structure that the sampling criteria used belong to professional judgement and are not of a different nature. To conclude, we consider that internal auditors should use integrity in all aspects of their work, which means that they should work as a team. Also, the relations between them and their colleagues and friends should be based on fairness and honesty.
Internal auditors should see things as they are, independent from collateral facts, and shape their own opinion. Objectivity is a core quality of an internal auditor, involving coexistence of brilliant intellectual capacities and exemplary fairness, unspoiled by any conflicts of interests.
This quality is used by auditors both for analysis and decision-making purposes. Internal auditors should be objective throughout the entire internal audit mission, with a view to strengthening credibility required when presenting findings, recommendations, and conclusions. Thus, they should refrain from any activity which might compromise their professional judgement. Confidentiality Confidentiality represents a key internal audit principle, since, in practice, the internal auditor is aware of all significant details related to the entity, the publication of which might be detrimental to the organisation.
The purpose of this fundamental principle is for internal auditors to preserve the information received during their missions. Actually, it is not allowed to reveal any information related to the entity without prior agreement from the latter. This principle should be respected ad literam, since, during their missions, internal auditors have at their disposal written and oral data on the financial statements, real estate, production and delivery policies, as well as information on management approaches.
This information often represents the base for sustainable development of the entity, and finding this out by unauthorised people might be very detrimental to the entity. Thus, this information should not be revealed or commented, but used or discussed by the team.
Another aspect related to confidentiality of information acquired during the missions refers to its use for personal gain purposes by internal auditors. However, there are certain situations when internal auditors are brought to court, to clarify certain aspects found during the audit missions. Under these circumstances the internal auditor should answer positively to the request of the court, without infringing the confidentiality principle.
Confidentiality as a fundamental principle does not refer only to the use of information. This principle also covers the careful treatment which the internal auditor should apply in case of documents collected and especially documents reflecting negative aspects about the entity.
These documents should not be available anytime and for anybody. Professional competence is the result of a long process of knowledge gathering in the field of accounting, management, taxation, mathematics, administrative and commercial law, financial management, mathematical analysis, statistics etc.
In their activity, internal auditors should apply the provisions of the international audit standards. In this sense, they should only do the work for which they have the required knowledge, skills and experience. But this does not mean that they should not be interested in ongoing professional training. Internal auditors have the responsibility to update their knowledge periodically. They should get information on progress made and current evolutions in the field of audit norms, procedures and techniques.
Also, they should make an effort to improve effectiveness and quality of their work. A constituent part of the professional practice advisories, The Code of Ethics has been adopted in Romania as well, first for the public sector though a legal act, and then also for the private sector, through the assimilation of the International Audit Standards as national internal audit norms by the Chamber of Financial Auditors in Romania.
Arens, A. Berban, V. O' Reilly, V. Renard, J. It is a efficiency stage confirmed by obtained of some incomes higher then the afferent expenses, so the process to obtain the profit. Profitability is splitting in two major categories: a the profitability of expenses, which illustrates the operational activity's legal competence to generate results by making expenses; b the profitability of incomes, which illustrates the efficiency of capitalization the operational activities, through the incomes capacity to generate results.
The analysis of profitability for operational activity follows the profitability of incomes and expenses of operational activity on forming steps: the exploiting activity, the current activity, the global activity. KEY WORDS: profitability from exploiting activity, profitability of exploiting in financial terms, current activity profitability, global activity profitability 1.
We could talk about the exploiting incomes profitability and the exploiting expenses profitability. For industry area enterprises it is possible to split profitability on activities: only commercial activity and productive activity. Difference between the incomes from goods sell and expenses related to goods is the commercial margin the commercial addition. Based on commercial margin it is possible to define the profitability of incomes from goods sale and profitability of expenses made with the goods. It is named also the rate of commercial margin. However, a dynamic increase of commercial margin in ratio to incomes and expenses afferent to wares commercialization will have a good effect over exploiting activity efficiency.
The difference between the incomes and the expenses afferent to this activity represents the profit of basic activity. It shows the profit obtained to a currency unit expensed in this activity. This value has to oscillate around the average costs profitability margin value. The higher it is, the higher is the efficiency.
This possibility is global and offers general information thanks to structure of incomes and expenses from exploiting activity and it is possible not to be always significantly. An other possibility to approach the commercial profitability is represented by the commercial profitability, a margin indicator very often used. The general profitability of exploiting expressed in the economical terms 1.
The indicator is more significantly then the current and global profitability, especially in the case when there are financial and exceptional operations, and their dimensions mislead the global indicator. The rate measures the exploiting resources capacity to generate profit by consumption. The indicator express the efficiency of society products capitalization and characterise the commercial and prices policy efficiency. The rate increasing illustrates a positive situation and takes place when the profit index is higher then the turnover index. The main reserves of commercial rentability increasing: the sale increase, the sale structure adjustment, increasing of rotate speed for stocks, the expenses optimisation.
In this case the exploiting incomes could be generating in an anomalous manner, and the major structure may not be detained by CA. In the cases of industry enterprises could be evidentiate he connections between the commercial profitability, the strictly commercial activity and the efficiency of production activity. From the expenses and incomes of exploiting are deducted all the calculated elements, in order to illustrate in cash terms the activity efficiency.
Practically, it illustrates the income profit which comes to an unit of expense payable in exploiting activity. It is a form of profitability on flows base, which use the cashes and payments from exploiting. It illustrates in cash terms the efficiency of activity capitalization. This rate illustrates the profit which comes to a unit of income from exploiting activity.
The indicator expresses the efficiency of products capitalization in potential terms of exploiting cash-flow. The indicator illustrates the efficiency of products capitalization in effective terms of exploiting cash. It illustrates the efficiency of products capitalization in concrete terms. This rate illustrates how much cash was consumed by the afferent payments.
Methodology to Determine the Enterprise's Profitability 55 Table 1. It illustrates the efficiency of current activity capitalization. Obtaining of exploiting incomes is conditioned by exploiting expenses made, while in the case of financial and exceptional activities don't exist such a connection. Table 2. In progress, the rate increasing illustrates a positive situation and takes place when the gross profit index is higher then the total incomes index. The major reserves of incomes profitability increase are: incomes increasing, adjust of incomes structures, the expenses optimization.
This expresses the net efficiency of products capitalization and shows how much net profit are forming to an unit of achieved CA. The commercial rentability measures the activity efficiency developed by the firm for a financial exercise period. It illustrates how many potentially self-financing resources are forming by a unit of achieved turnover. This expresses the net efficiency of capitalization the society's activity and illustrates how much cash are forming by an achieved turnover unit.
A firm could work with low margins, in order to obtain high rotations. The amount loss to the margin could be recover and surpass through rotations. Ana, G. Andronic, B. Even if its main purpose is profit, another one is growth. Growth, as a strategic choice, can be reached either by organic growth, by strategic alliances or by merger and acquisition they are risky because of the incompatibility of different companies.
In the paper below, we analyze merger and acquisition from the juridical and economic point of view, its international implication for companies in terms of advantages and disadvantages and also, a comparison between Romanian framework for merger and acquisition and EU acquis requirements. Companies on a growth path will take away market share from competitors, create economic profits, and provide returns to shareholders.
Those that do not grow tend to stagnate, lose customers and market share, and destroy shareholders value. Mergers and acquisitions are a vital part of any healthy economy and importantly, the primary way that companies are able to provide returns to owners and investors. This fact combined with the potential for large returns; make acquisition a highly attractive way for entrepreneurs and owners to capitalize on the value created in a company.
Starting a company and selling it can be the fastest way to create substantive wealth. While it is difficult to start a successful company, the economic rewards are tremendous. This period, however, came to a crashing end with the bursting of the tech bubble and the global recession that followed. First, many companies have exhausted cost cutting and operational efficiencies as a means to increase profitability, and are looking to top-line growth as a primary enabler of shareholder return.
The increased pressure to grow highlights the opportunity to achieve growth through acquisition. The improved valuations have enabled corporations to leverage their internal currencies to acquire target companies who are willing to swap their illiquid private stock for valuable public company shares. Third, interest rates have hovered at historical lows, enabling firms to cost- effectively utilize debt to finance acquisition-based growth. In addition to the aforementioned macroeconomic forces, many large industries have seen strong consolidation trends, with energy and power, financial services, and telecommunications leading the way by deal value, and high technology leading in terms of the total number of deals.
There is no more complicated transaction than a merger or acquisition. The various issues raised are broad and complex, from valuation and deal structure, to tax and securities laws. The industries affected by this rapid activity are also diverse, from banking and computer software companies, to retailers and healthcare organizations.
It seems that virtually every executive of every major industry faces a buy or sell decision at some point during his or her tenure as leader of the company. In fact, it is estimated that some executives spend as much as one third of their time considering merger and acquisition opportunities and other structural business decisions. Successful merges and acquisitions are neither an art nor a science but a process. The higher the growth rate, the higher the multiple of cash flow the business is worth.
A study of deals that close with both buyer and seller satisfied show that the deal followed a sequence, a pattern, and a series of steps that have been tried and tested. A transaction, as complex as a merger or acquisition, is fraught with potential problems and pitfalls. These pitfalls can lead to expensive and protracted litigation unless an alternative method of dispute resolution is negotiated and included in the definitive documents. Nobody ever plans to enter into a bad deal.
But many well-intentioned entrepreneurs and business executives enter into a mergers and acquisitions that they later regret. Classic mistakes include a lack of adequate planning, an overly aggressive timetable to closing, a failure to really look as possible post-closing integration problems, or, worst of all, the projected synergies that were intended to be achieved turn out to be illusory. As evident, to opt in for a merger and acquisition solution, it should be some motivation for both parties involved.
In a classic merger, there is no buyer or seller, though one party may be quarterbacking the transaction or have initiated the discussion. Therefore, the culture and spirit of the negotiations are different from those for an acquisition. In a merger, data gathering and due diligence are two-way and mutual, with each party positioning its contribution to the post-merger entity to justify its respective equity share, management, and control of the new company. Between Romanian and EU framework there are some differences. With so much money on the line, it is essential to understand how to maximize price and valuation goals while ensuring the transaction is successfully consummated.
Sherman, A. A survey containing Likert-type scales was used in collecting data from international tourists who had travelled to Thailand. Using factor analysis, dimensions were identified for scales used in the study: travel cost satisfaction, tourist demographics, tourism product, tourism product attributes, and tourism product management. Results indicated that the travel cost satisfaction of international tourists had a positive influenced on tourism product attributes at 0.
Also the travel cost satisfaction had a positive influence on tourism product management at 0. And the tourist demographics had a positive influenced on tourism product at 0. As well as tourist demographics, which had a positive influenced on tourism management at 0.
The results of the research suggested that if the tourist destinations in Thailand are improved in quality then not only will international tourist revisit Thailand but also the numbers of tourists travelling to Thailand will increase. Student, Bangalore University, India Assoc.
In Thailand alone, the tourism industry accounts for 5. Development and promotion of Thai international tourism started during the s Siriporn and Wang, Moreover, the study of Rittichainuwat et all. Pimtong, Qu and Ryan found that the positioning of Thailand as a traveler destination is still positive and can be competitive with other countries. Travelers have a positive image of many attributes that Thailand hospitality businesses provide to them. And the unique cultural and natural attractions and high quality accommodation, restaurants, and services are important indicators for increasing Thailand's positioning.
The Thai government has started many projects to support the tourism industry in Thailand. According to information presented above, in order for the Thai tourism industry to reach its potential, the industry needs to continue to develop. The main idea to develop in this study focuses on tourist destinations in Thailand. Because tourist destinations are very importance to attract international tourist arrivals to Thailand Yau and Chan , Rittichainuwat et all.
In this research design the tourist destination must consist of tree parts: 1 tourism product, 2 tourism product attribute, and 3 tourism product management. If these three parts are continually developed following international tourist demand then not only will international tourist revisit Thailand but also the number of international tourists travelling to Thailand will increase Yau and Chan , Rittichainuwat et all. This data was colleted from international tourist arrivals to Thailand in this period by survey and the totally number of questionnaires used for this method was The areas used to collect data were Bangkok, Chiang-Mai province, Chiang Rai province, Kon Kaen province and Chonburi province which are well-known to international tourists source: Thailand Tourism Organization.
After that a lot of research about international tourist demand function used the econometric method. Empirical research on international tourism demand has overwhelmingly been based on aggregate time series data which permits estimation of income and price elasticity on inbound tourism see Lim, and McAleer , A simple origin-destination demand model for international tourism can be written as: equation number 1.
When the measure of transportation costs from the origin to destination country at time t is increasing then the demand for international tourism decreases. And when the measure of tourism price of goods and services is increasing then the demand for international tourism is decreasing. Moreover in term of - Pt explain that when the measure of tourism price of goods and service is decreasing then the satisfaction of tourist for goods and service is increasing Yi, see more detail in topic of Customer Satisfaction.
Based on a review of the literature above in terms of international tourism demand model, all of them have already been referred to again from Chukiat et al This research also expects higher travel cost satisfaction status to have a positive impact on total expenditure due to preference for tourism product or tourism destination. Weaver et al and Cottrell found that age was a discriminating demographic variable that influenced holiday behaviour and choices. Younger people tend to be interested in adventurous activities such as wildlife viewing and beach holidays.
With advances in age, individuals search for holiday activities that can give them more knowledge and understanding of issues outside their usual environment of life, particularly cultural activities BongKoo, Like age, occupation and education enhances the need for an individual to learn more about other people and how they live in different environments Mok and Armstrong, Therefore, travellers who are better educated and have high ranked occupations tend to search for more specific activities and experiences Zimmer et. Higher socio-economic status increases the possibilities of engaging in people-centered activities due to greater access to information and increased awareness Odunga and Folmer, Also more income enables individuals to spend more money during holidays.
High-income earners prefer high-class activities and facilities Odunga and Folmer, This research also expected higher Demographic or socio-economic status to have a positive impact on total expenditure due to preference for higher quality tourism product or tourism destination. Customer satisfaction is a central concept in marketing because it is crucial to meeting the needs and wants of customers Spreng et al.
While customer satisfaction has been defined in many ways, researchers generally agree that an evaluation process is an essential element underlying customer satisfaction Yi, In term of economics cost can be regarded as monetary service price and service time during which a service is provide Murphy and Enis, According to a review of the literature above the travel cost satisfaction of tourists is higher when the cost of travel is lower.
One again this research also expected higher travel cost satisfaction status to have a positive impact on total expenditure due to preference for tourism product or tourism destination. Apart from the attraction, the key services are transport, accommodation and hospitality Gnoth, Brass suggests that tourism products can be classified into two main components: attractions and facilities.
Attractions are those natural and human-made features and events that stimulate people to visit a destination. The tourism product includes physical goods, services, experiences, events, persons, places, properties, organizations, information and ideas contribute to the satisfaction of travelers.
Smith, ; Kother, This product can be an idea, an expectation, or a frame of mind, at the point of sale. Swanson and Horridge, The various characteristics of tourism product such as cleanliness, beauty, safety and environmentally friendly. The tourism product management or the tourism destination management Ritchie , consists of three part: 1 destination competitiveness is the competitiveness of one destination relative to other destinations.
The destination management or tourism product management must address: a Attractions: the motivators for the visit: built e. The destination management or tourism product management is creating competitive advantage for your destination in long term also is advancing sustainable development of competitive tourism in your destination Lengyel, In this research focus on the destination management or tourism product management is the attraction of the tourism product, the amenities of the tourism product, the accessibility to the tourism product, the image of the tourism product, the price of the tourism product and the competitiveness of the tourism product.
This research also expected both higher travel cost satisfaction and tourist demographics status to have a positive impact on total expenditure due to preference for tourism destination tourism product, tourism product attributes and tourism product management. Swanson and Patricia E. Horridge and modified by Chukiat 6. This approach is also very famous for use for data analysis in both social research and economics research Nongrak, Variables in the equation system may be either directly observed variables or unmeasured latent theoretical variables that are not observed but relate to observed variables.
It describes the measurement properties reliabilities and validities of the observed variables. It is particularly designed to accommodate models that include latent variables, measurement errors in both dependent and independent variables, reciprocal causation, simultaneity, and interdependence. Description of the Model.
The full LISREL model for single samples is defined, for deviations about the means, by the following three equations. The assumptions in the previous section imply the following form for the covariance matrix of the observed variables: where A is inverse I - B. Fixed, Free and Constrained Parameters. These provinces are famous for international tourist arrivals to Thailand Source: Thailand's Tourism Organization.
Table 1 see more detail in appendix A shows descriptive statistics of Thailand's international tourists in terms of both their socio-economics and their demographics. Table 2 see more details in appendix A shows descriptive statistics of Thailand's international tourists in term of their travel behaviour. Table 3 see more detail in appendix A shows descriptive statistics of Thailand's international tourists in term of their opinions on tourism products or tourist destinations in Thailand.
Table 4 see more detail in appendix A shows descriptive statistics of Thailand's international tourists in term of their opinions on tourism products attributes or tourist destinations attributes in Thailand. From table 5 see more detail in appendix A give descriptive statistics of Thailand's international tourists in term of their opinions on tourism products management or tourist destinations management in Thailand. Reliability refers to the degree of stability of the scale Jackson et al. Reliability of the construct is demonstrated by checking the Cronbach alpha for the items for each construct and the correlation among the items for the construct.
Typically, a scale is said to be reliable if alpha is 0. Table 7 gives the validity and reliability indices for the questionnaire items for each variable. All the items had reliability coefficients higher than 0. Figure 1 illustrates how latent variables-tourism products, tourism product attributes, tourism product management, travel cost satisfaction, and tourist demographics-were measured the measurement model and how the latent variables were proposed to relate among one another the structural equation model.
This research tested the model in Figure 1. Significant relationships in the model are indicated by solid arrows and insignificant relationships are indicated by doted arrows. The chi-square statistic test whether the observed data fit the hypothesis if the proposed model, and a smaller chi-square value indicates a better fit Sim, Mak and Jone, However, for a small sample size that might have slightly departed from normality, the chi-squares are not good model fit indicators Sim, Mak and Jone, The model has a GFI of 0.
This shows a good fit and the adjusted goodness of fit AGFI is 0. Similarly, the non- normed fit index NNFI and the comparative fit index CFI are two additional measures ranging from 0 to 1, where values close to or greater than 0. In general, a root mean squared residual of 0. The model has a RMSR of 0. A review of the LISREL estimates and residuals in table 8 reveals non- significant observed variables related to travel cost satisfaction: x1 and x3.
And the LISREL estimates and residuals in the same table reveals non-significant observed variables related to tourism product: y1 and y3 as well as the LISREL estimates and residuals in the same tables reveals non-significant observed variables related to tourism product attributes: y5 and y7. Once again the LISREL estimates and residuals in the same Tables reveals non-significant observed variables related to tourism product management: y9, y10 and y In the hypothesis 1 testing, the model showed that travel cost satisfaction has a positive influence on tourism product attributes at 0.
Also, the model showed that travel cost satisfaction has a positive influence on tourism product management at 0. In the hypothesis 2 testing, the model showed that tourist demographics have a positive influence on tourism product at 0. The model also showed that tourist demographics have a positive influence on tourism management at 0.
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To test the causal relationships between these variables, a LISREL model incorporating measurement and structural equation modelling was developed and tested. In our sample of international tourists, a positive effect was found between travel cost satisfaction and tourist destinations tourism product attributes and tourism product management.
Also a positive effect was found between tourist demographics and tourist destinations tourism product and tourism product management. First, travel cost satisfaction has a positive influence on tourism product attributes at 0. Also travel cost satisfaction has a positive influence on tourism product management at 0. If a generalization can be made for future years, then it suggests that both the private tourism sector and the Thai government tourism sector should maintain the attributes of tourist destinations such as keeping tourist destinations clean, keeping tourist destinations beautiful, keeping tourist destinations safe and to protect the environment of tourist destinations.
As well, it is suggested that both the private tourism sector and the Thai government tourism sector should maintain good management of tourist destinations in Thailand. Such as maintaining the amenities of the tourism products, keeping good accessibility to the tourism products, keep a good image of tourism products, keeping the right price of tourism products and keeping the competitiveness of tourism products.
Also this result was similar with the results of previous empirical studies of tourist destinations in Thailand Yau and Chan , Ritichainuwat et al. Their research results suggested that Thailand has a positive image as safe travel destinations and for adventure activities, scenic natural beauty, rich culture, good-value cuisine and hotels, easy access, good shopping, beautiful beaches, reasonable prices, friendly people and various attractions such as amusements and nightlife entertainment.
Second, tourist demographics have a positive influenced on the tourism product at 0. Moreover, tourist demographics also have a positive influenced on tourism management at 0. If a generalization can be made for future years, then it suggests that both the private tourism sector and the Thai government tourism sector should keep on improving both the quality and management of tourist destinations in Thailand.