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It observed the supernova for approximately two and one-half hours starting at 14 hrs. The telescope used a technique called coded-aperture imaging to produce images in a wavelength where mirrors and lenses are not feasible. A coded-aperture imager functions like a multiple-pinhole camera. In such a camera, multiple holes [Figure 1. Using the coded aperture technique, the Caltech telescope produced an accompanying slide image of Supernova A [Figure 1.

The hard x-rays and gamma-rays which make up this image are thought to be direct and scattered photons from the decay of radioactive cobalt 56, newly produced in the explosion of the supernova. To accomplish this astronomical feat,. Prince, three hexagonal uniformly redundant arrays of order , , and Downs Laboratory of Physics, Pasadena. Coded aperture pinhole image, November 18, Bos created pinhole aperture plates and subsequent images that resembled the famous galaxies, such as M81 by Candlelight Figure 1.

Of her work she explained:. My interest has continued over the years and exploration of the furthest reaches of space and time by the Hubble telescope are fascinating and humbling. Lens photograph. Images for a new folk cosmology mythologizing the nature of light itself. This series began with a candle. If we look far enough into space, what do we see? A million candles dotting the night sky. But it is only one candle appearing as many. Each view slightly different depending on the size of the pinhole and the location on the pinhole plane.

I tried to follow the star charts quite accurately when creating these galaxy images. The location and size of each pinhole corresponds to a real star [Figure 1. The brighter the star, the bigger the pinhole and consequently the brighter and more obscure the image taken with that pinhole. There are a couple images where I placed my hand behind the candle. My ghostly hand protecting the light from blowing out only appears with some of the brighter candle images. In a similar concept, Peggy Ann Jones of California used intentional light leaks to create point sources of light as random constellations, as well as an iconographic s upsidedown colander to recreate an UFO.

She explained the black hole camera and its image Figures 1. This piece represents a series of sculptural cameras that were intentionally designed to have light leaks. Each camera was made from styrofoam packing material used to protect electronic equipment. When I found that the styrofoam back was leaking light from many small points, I was elated. The direction to take was clear; I would make AstroPhotography in my studio.

I recall that a Black Hole is not really a hole in space at all. Roderick S. E-mail from James E. Angus C. Ibn al Haitham, Opticae Thesaurus [], ed. Risnero, Basel, in A. Bradbury and G. From Ebauches des Confessions, vol. Robler Publisher, , Pascal New York: International Publishers, , His highly intelligent and quick Sorting Demon could guide molecules through an incredibly small hole Figure 1. They do not attempt to analyze his entire process, particularly the images made in the laboratory such as Figure 1. Francesco Grimaldi, Physico mathesis de lumine, coloribus, et iride, aliisque adnexis libri duo, Boniniae, , in M.

Smith and B. Walford, , — Blake, T.

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Chubb, H. Thomas A. Dianne Bos, Pinhole Journal, Vol. Peggy Ann Jones, personal communication to the author, 3 September What is painting but the act of embracing by means of art the surface of the pool? Perspective is a Latin word meaning Seeing-Through. Certainly this is not something we were taught in school.

Giovanni in Florence. And he depicted in it all that could be seen in a single view; to paint it he took up a position about three braccia inside the middle door of S. Maria del Fiore. The work was done with such care and accuracy and the colours of the black and white marble were so faithfully reproduced that no miniaturist ever excelled him. Zepotius as far as the Canto alla Paglia and all that could be seen beyond it on the other.

And for what he had to show of the sky, that is. Brunelleschi stands before the Baptistery in Florence. He uses one eye to look through a lentil-sized hole made through the back of his painting. When the angle of view of the real Baptistery matches the edge of the mirrored image in the painting, Brunelleschi can lower the mirror and have a duplicate of his painting.

Circa s, drawing by the author, Brunelleschi therefore made a hole in the panel on which the picture was painted; and this hole was in fact exactly at the spot on the painting where the eye would strike on the church of S. Giovanni if one stood inside the middle door of S. Maria del Fiore, in the place where Brunelleschi had stood in order to paint the picture.

The distance between the mirror and the other hand was such that, counting small braccia for real braccia, it was exactly equivalent to the distance between the church of S. Giovanni and the place where Brunelleschi was assumed to be standing when he painted it. Looking at it with all the circumstances exactly as described above—the burnished silver, the representation of the piazza, the precise point of observation—it seemed as though one were seeing the real building.

And I have had it in my hand and looked at it many times in my days and can testify to it. This picture had to be observed in a particular way: One had to stand exactly where the artist had stood when he painted his subject—that is, almost six feet inside the entrance of the church. A peephole had been cut in the center of the picture, and the viewer had to look through it from the back of the picture. Gazing through the hole, he would see the cathedral square and the Baptistery just as Brunelleschi had painted them.

Then, holding up a mirror, he could look through the peephole and this time see the front of the painting, which coincided exactly with the actual view of the square. He wanted to create a theory for perspective pertaining to the eye, which sees objects in three dimensions, and then places those objects into two dimensions, as in drawings and paintings. Equally important, he wanted to know how is the eye similar to the camera obscura?

Brunelleschi was able to represent perfectly the reality of three dimensions by looking through the lentil-sized aperture drilled into the two-dimensional painting. When he removed the mirror, he had a duplicate of the painting in three dimensions. To accomplish this, he had to be standing exactly at the correct distance in front of the real building, and his eye behind the hole had to remain stationary.

To thoroughly understand their interchangeability, we must be able to comprehend that any point in space can be replaced by a pinhole that will project an image made from multiple points of light passing through it. Any point in space consequently can become an image in our eye. These points of light are seen by our eye as a complete three-dimensional picture. Each of these points forms a straight line of light passing through the aperture. All this works perfectly well in the 15th-century view of straight line geometric optics. How straight-line geometric optics works in both the eye and the camera obscura.

How a three-dimensional scene, whether it is a building exterior or interior, can be transformed into two dimensions. By failing to recognize this, they fail to realize that Brunelleschi was also theoretically demonstrating the workings of a small-apertured camera obscura as well as the workings of the eye. This produces a camera obscura.

The only theoretically correct way to see the projected image again was to look through the aperture. This, of course, preserved the image. When you put your eye at the aperture, you could actually see the painted image, precisely as it looked outside. Of course the image was painted upside down and light had to be added inside. How profound! Theoretically, everything was geometrically correct! Alberti painted wonderful pictures, which were exhibited in some sort of small closed box, viewed through a very small aperture.

The pictures showed marvelous verisimilitude; one picture was nocturnal, showing the moon and stars, the other diurnal, showing a day scene. A present-day roomsized camera obscura is shown in Figures 2. Alberti would have probably made his day scene of a well-known landmark so that the scene could have been viewed outside the box in its well-known three-dimensional reality or through the aperture in the box in its newly created three-dimensional reality.

How would Alberti have painted this scene? To be theoretically consistent with Brunelleschi, he would have probably made a rectangular or square box with the top removed and a small aperture in one side aimed toward the landmark. Alberti could have draped a thick black cloth over himself and the box to exclude all extraneous light from entering the box, except for the image through the small aperture. The image of the landmark would have been upside down on the inside of the box. Alberti could have duplicated the image with paint or in pencil on the entire inside of the box.

It would not have been easy to bend over and paint or draw the upside-down image, but if my understanding is right about the milieu of those early Renaissance times, this kind of craziness would have been just perfect. To convert an ordinary room into a camera obscura, select a room with a window overlooking a spacious view. To avoid direct sunlight, choose a window facing north. With an opaque material block out the selected window and all other windows. Black plastic, available at most hardware stores, is quite effective.

Make a hole about the size of a penny in the center of the selected window. A larger hole will render a brighter but fuzzier image, whereas a smaller hole will show a fainter but sharper image. An inverted and reversed image of the outside view will appear on the walls and ceiling. After the picture was painted, Alberti would have attached a painted top to the box, turned it over so it was right-side up, and let people view it through the very small aperture.

The painting would not have been lit by the aperture; it could have been lit by an opening in the top or side of the box or the painting could have been translucent and lit from an opening in the back of the box. The painting in its truthful representation of three-dimensional reality would have seemed miraculous. Are there any other cameras where you view the image through the aperture? There are. Unfortunately, art historians never refer to them as any type of camera obscura. Less than a dozen have survived. The best preserved peepshow box Figure 2.

For light, one of its sides is glass. Each is placed in the side near the glass, three-fourths of. The box consists of three sides, a top, and a bottom. The fourth side is clear, covered with glass. About three-quarters up each side, adjoining the glass, is a peephole. Viewed in person, the painted interior has a beautiful light and looks real. The anamorph painted on top of the peepshow box is shown in Figure 2. Van Hoogstraaten had to invent two different illusionist pictures for the inside of the box.

Each is viewed through a separate large aperture. The main problem Van Hoogstraaten faced is that each picture had to blend perfectly with the other in the middle of the box—a complex three-dimensional challenge. Van Hoogstraaten was a contemporary of Jan Vermeer. Although partially destroyed, a six-sided peepshow box by Van Hoogstraaten is on display at the Detroit Institute of Art. The side containing the small aperture has been removed!

Several other peepshow boxes can be found in The Netherlands and Denmark. The peepshow box, a painting in three dimensions, remained only a curiosity—one seldom realized by artists over the centuries to follow. The viewer looks through these two peepholes and cannot make much sense of the picture plane.

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The two peepholes, a rough cutout in an obscured dark brick wall and a steeply angled foreshortened view of a reclining explicitly nude woman placed at the extreme left side of the view, all act together to remove the scene from the comprehensible perfected reality created by the normal view picture plane.

Most of all, the kitchy waterfall on the right seems to be too distant for the entire picture to achieve one point perspective coherence. At least something which has a fairly convincing stamp of realism. The abstract painting cannot be deconstructed in the same literal way as the perspective painting. He used it as a device for two-dimensional drawings and paintings, known as the intersector or the veil. This was of great assistance to the artist, particularly in foreshortening, and was widely used over many centuries.

In De Pictura, Alberti says:. I set this up between the eye and the object to be represented, so that the visual pyramid passes through the loose weave of the veil. A further advantage is that the position of the outlines and the boundaries of the surfaces can easily be established accurately on the painting panel; for just as you see the forehead in one parallel, the nose in the next, the cheeks in another, the chin in one below, and everything else in its particular place, so you can situate all the features on the panel or wall which you have similarly divided into appropriate parallels.

It must have been extraordinary to view the superb realism of this painting in It is known that Flemish painters were in artistic contact with the Italian Renaissance and that van Eyck had even been urged by King Alfonso to emigrate to Naples to decorate his new palace.

He states:. There is the convex mirror again. If you were to reverse the silvering, and turn it around, this would be all the optical equipment you would need for the meticulous and naturallooking detail in the picture. Maria Novella, Florence. The painting was intended to be viewed at exactly 20 feet 1 inch, circa Leonardo mentions the use of a small aperture in at least 20 places in his manuscripts.

According to my adversary, necessity requires that the central line of every image that enters by small and narrow openings into a dark chamber shall be turned upside down, together with the images of the bodies that surround it. Ia] A method of seeing the sun eclipsed without pain to the eye.

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Take a piece of paper and pierce holes in it with a needle, and look at the sun through these holes. This is shown when the images of illuminated objects penetrate into a very dark chamber by some small round hole. Then, you will receive these images on a white paper placed within this dark room and rather near to the hole, and you will see all the objects on this paper in their proper forms and colors, but much smaller. And let the little perforation be made in a very thin plate of iron. By moving the edges of the opening through which the images are admitted, the images of immovable objects are made to move.

Hence the images of the illuminated objects are all everywhere on this wall and all in each minutest part of it. The reason, as we clearly know, is that this hole must admit some light to the said dwelling, and the light admitted by it is derived from one or many luminous bodies. If these bodies are of various colors and shapes the rays forming the images are of various colors and shapes, and so will the representations be on the wall. As soon as a lens was placed in a camera obscura, artists no longer needed to use the pinhole camera obscura. This would have happened around the time of Vermeer — For a scholarly discussion on the camera obscura, see M.

The second is the object seen. The third is the distance between eye and object. The fourth; one sees everything by means of straight lines, that is to say the shortest lines. Artist is viewing through a tube, which is attached to a back wall. Who would believe that so small a space could contain the image of all the universe? O mighty process! What talent can avail to penetrate a nature such as these? What tongue will it be that can unfold so great a wonder? Verily, none! This it is that guides the human discourse to the considering of divine things. O what a point is so marvelous! In that program, Samuel Y.

The one-point perspective was therefore worthy of promotion.

Even paintings of secular subjects had a miraculous appeal as a consequence of the continuum of one-point perspective. Little known is the fact that the loss of native peoples in North and South America would prove to be the largest of all holocausts. The world that we have made as a result of the level of thinking that we have done so far, has created problems we cannot solve at the level of thinking at which we created them.

We shall require a substantially new manner of thinking if humankind is to survive. No two-dimensional reproduction of this painting can portray the beauty of this three-dimensional illusion.

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  5. It has to be seen in person. Next he placed a giant net Figure 2. He then marked where each string held taut touched the vaulted ceiling. Leonardo wrote the following about creating anamorphic projection:. In the same drawing is another anamorph, an eye, able to be viewed from the right edge. A distorted view of reality what a person sees when viewing the anamorph from the normal frontal position.

    An undistorted view of reality the true picture. This view can be found only if you know where the pinhole or small aperture was situated to make the painting or drawing. Usually, the pinhole was on one side. Abrams, Ignatio into Paradise, Church of St. Everything above the dark vaulted windows is painted onto an upper curved vault. Even the columns seem to be projecting upward into deep space. Angled dotted lines are stretched through the net intersections onto the vault. This painting, the only extant large anamorph, is open to the public for one-half hour each week.

    The only large anamorph still in existence that dates from the Italian Renaissance is St. This remarkable foot-long painting Figure 2. Entering from the far end of the hallway, one sees St. Standing directly in front of the painting, one sees that the robes become a lake with several boats and small villages dotting a mountainous terrain.

    Niceron made many circular anamorphs that could be viewed with a mirrored tube. This was changed by the invention of photography. In his book, The Stereoscope, Brewster coined the word pin-hole and it stuck. Other names have been suggested or even urged as a replacement. CHAPTER 2 Pinhole Photography As inappropriate as it might seem, because the pinhole is almost always made with a needle or drill, the term pinhole has its own particular charm and historical appropriateness. The Rev. Egerton and I have obtained photographs of a bust, in the course of ten minutes, with a very faint sun, and through an aperture less than a hundredth of an inch; and I have no doubt that when chemistry has furnished us with a material more sensitive to light, a camera without lenses, and with only a pin-hole, will be the favorite instrument of the photographer.

    At present, no sitter could preserve his composure and expression during the number of minutes which are required to complete the picture. She wrote:. It was essentially a box of japanned tin about the size and shape of a biscuit tin; the lens had two apertures, drilled in a sheet of tin, and the drop-shutter was also of tin, strengthened by a slip of wood; there was a sleeve of opaque material into which he could insert his hand to remove and replace successive plates, exposed and unexposed plates being separated by a slip of cardboard.

    However, from the aforementioned description and from his suggestions in Methods and Aims in Archaeology , it is possible to reconstruct his camera. Petrie wrote:. If a shutter is wanted a simple drop can easily be extemporised. Got a line of inch wide on the plate. He took all his photographs on the site. The objects and pottery were arranged on shelves draped with a black backcloth against the sides of the hut.

    Then the stand camera would be set up. It is surprising to see this clever, yet folksy, pinhole camera from Figure 2. Its aesthetic is in juxtaposition to what. Jno Van Sant, diffraction camera, pinhole aperture inch, , lens photograph. Light coal oil lamp July 19, Jno Van Sant. This aroused intellectual antagonism. On one side were those from the old school, who believed in the sharpest focus and achieved it with highest quality lenses.

    On the other side were those from the new school, who admired atmospheric qualities, otherwise derided as fuzziness. Fuzziness later became known as pictorialism. In England, the most outspoken proponent for fuzziness was George Davison. At that time photography was not considered art. In , in the new magazine Photography, Davison wrote:. It need hardly be said that nearly all beginners and many old stagers simply go straight for the smallest stop they dare use in order to make sure of getting all sharp. Now, in regard to ninety-nine hundredths of the photographs turned out, it does not matter in the main how they are treated in this respect; they would be almost equally feeble however focused, but given a subject with really strong and poetic possibilities in it, sharpness and detail will go a long way to render it commonplace.

    This bar of brass slides across a hole in a special front to the camera, through slots made in a simple telescopic lens tube, which tube serves as a sky shade. It will certainly do most photographers good to produce a few pinhole pictures. If they are not warped by prejudice, or blinded by ignorance, they cannot fail to feel the advantage that frequently is gained by such diffusion of focus.

    Davison later changed the title to The Onion Field. Davison received praise; the pinhole received the following criticism:. It is certainly a satire on the labours of the optician that after the resources of science have been exhausted to produce a perfect lens, the best work can be produced with no more elaborate optical instrument than a bit of sheet metal with a hole pierced in it.

    George Davison was 1 of the original 12 founders. International exhibitions of art photography were presented by the group. Later pictorial photography was substituted for art photography. By , photographic enthusiasts in Europe, Japan, and the United States were purchasing varied types of commercial pinhole equipment.

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    In London in , pinhole cameras known as Photomnibuses were sold. Oddly enough, not one of these cameras can be found in any historic collection. Several years earlier, in , an American company invented the Ready Fotographer Figure 2. It, too, was unusual, having a rotating pinhole disc with six pinholes three pairs of similar sizes , used singly or in stereoscopic pairs. The camera came with a four-pinhole brass turret in Figure 2. The pinhole sizes were 0. As if this were not enough, several companies sold rotating pinhole discs Figure 2.

    All of these pinhole cameras and attachments are extremely rare today. They are attached to the camera by three outside screws. The pinhole turret that turns inside these two layers is held in place by a pin rivet, visible at the left of the pinhole. Unfortunately, his pinhole psychological portraits from this period are lost. These were not photograms. For instance, Strindberg made celestiographs by holding photographic paper in his hand pointed toward the galaxy or planet he was photographing Figure 2.

    Had Strindberg not been an internationally known dramatist, his photographs, particularly the celestiographs, may well have never been preserved or recognized. Although his photographic work spanned 40 years, only around images exist today. Of these images, just three might be pinhole; of these, two unusual ones are in his Occult Diary Figures 2. Practically the only recognizable parts of these images are the doors, which connect to a place of transformation.

    These two pinhole photographs are far from the pictorialist imaging of that era. Courtesy of Royal Library, Stockholm. But: First speculate, then experiment! And I speculated as follows: Coming from the next room, the sound from an instrument touches my ear more forcefully if the door is open, than if it is closed. This was true and false at the same time; because sound is more easily transmitted in solid bodies than in the air.

    And yet, when I open the door, I can hear better! And I do see clearer through glass lenses than through air! But I then continued. Took away the lens from the camera, and inserted a diaphragm, drilled through with a sewing needle. I photographed a person, and received a result which in all aspects was more successful than in photographing with a good lens.

    The man appeared in clear detail; and so did the trees, in perspective all the way out to the distance. Test with a lens and the same pose. But my diaphragm gave me yet another advantage.

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    These blue stripes should normally turn out white, but here they remained greyish, outlining themselves against the white coat. And this fact, that blue retained its value, became for me the starting point for further experiments with colour photography. My speculation was correct when I took away the glass-lens, and allowed the light to work directly without passing through a medium. Human vision is an artifact. Just like our understanding of nature is nothing but models that we construct, which are more or less feasible in our dealings with the world. And as a consequence the realism of the camera or photography cannot be easily trusted.

    CHAPTER 2 Pinhole Photography Such was also his mode of photography—seldom expressionist or window-on-the-world realism, but rather conceptual, analytical, symbolic, metaphysical. The camera was an instrument with many ends. Photography a medium with endless applications. Here is what Nicole Krauss wrote:. He was an amateur photographer and one day he showed me how to make a pinhole camera. This was the spring of He told me to sit, and shone a lamp on my face. Then he removed the cover over the pinhole. I sat so still I was hardly breathing.

    We waited. Where I should have been there was only a scratchy greyness. My cousin insisted we do it again, so we did it again, and again nothing. Three times he tried to take a picture of me with the pinhole camera, and three times I failed to appear. I told my cousin to. I took a photograph of him, and as we watched the paper in the developing pan his face appeared.

    He laughed. And I laughed, too. He let me keep it. Whenever I took it out of my wallet and looked at him, I knew it was really looking at me. Strindberg would have approved of her turning of consciousness. Majak explained her process:. In Daguerre claimed that he managed to discover a way to let the image—be it a portrait or a landscape—leave its trace.

    The image in a daguerreotype was unique and unrepeatable. The mysterious character of it was enhanced by a possibility to see the result only from a certain angle. I am challenging a contemporary viewer in a similar way. A unique colour is characteristic of a sensitive material and the image becomes visible when watched from an angle, not from the front. Even the Bauhaus art movement did not seem interested in the pinhole technique.

    By the Depression era of the s, the pinhole was barely remembered. At best, in the photographic art world, it became only a teaching tool. Brehm unknowingly may have damaged the reputation of the pinhole; by the s many people thought of the pinhole as only the simplest of cameras, useful mostly because it could be made from a kit—for student-like or boy scout attempts—but hardly as important as a real image made by a lens camera. It has been a popular misconception that the well-known British art photographer Bill Brandt — used a pinhole for his wide-angle nude studies.

    Barrow wrote:. The design would have made them useful to general purpose commercial photographers doing day, architectural or industrial work; it has been said that it was a popular camera with the police force, maybe so, but it has been described as a police camera and this is nonsense. It was non focusing, rigid construction, but a focusing bellows attachment was available as an extra. Used by permission. Protar series maximum aperture f18 stopping down to f45—the focal length of mine was 8. I am enclosing a picture of the camera identical to the one he used [Figure 2.

    A new awareness was needed. Gift of Richard Zakia, from the collection at Pinhole Resource. Notes 1. For further study, read Samuel Y. Edgerton Jr. Abrams, , 21— There has even been conjecture by Professor Nicholas Allen of the Port Elizabeth Technikon, South Africa that a camera obscura with a quartz lens and some type of light-sensitive photographic material were used in the s to create the Shroud of Turin. Battista, Brunelleschi, Samuel Y.

    Stanley R. A very complete description of pinhole photography during the s. Murray, , — John Landquist Stockholm: Bonniers — Jim Barrow, personal communication to the author, 6 September The pinhole camera techniques seem to function better when used to produce a type of image which is not concerned with commonplace reality but instead focuses on the world of dreams and fantasy.

    REBIRTH — In the late s, a few artists whose training was not necessarily photographic chose to explore pinhole photography.

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