The IAEA welcomes both academic and practice based contributions on the following topics: Radiation dosimetry measurement standards for imaging, therapy and radiation protection Reference dosimetry and comparisons in brachytherapy, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine Clinical dosimetry in X ray imaging, radiotherapy and nuclear medicine Independent dosimetry quality audits Radiation protection dosimetry Dosimetry for proton and light ion beams in radiotherapy Detector technology and applications in dosimetry Other related topics including microdosimetry, nanodosimetry, dosimetry of small animal irradiators and more.
Email: info nvrb. Meeting: 33rd annual meeting of the European Society for Hyperthermic Oncology. Meeting: Pediatric Radiation Oncology Society The protection of the public and the environment depends on evaluation of radiation and radioactive materials in the environment. Because of diversity in exposures in both routine and accident conditions, internationally accepted measurement conventions are required for assessment of irradiation of individuals and for monitoring of the environment.
Specialized quantities and a substantial collection of reference data are needed for correlation of individual exposures and the associated risks. These quantities are used in measurements and calculations for the assessment of compliance with exposure limitations.
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In , Report No. Guidance for the measurement of operational quantities was provided in Report No. Beta-ray measurements were covered in Report No. Recently published were Report No. As a result of problems encountered with the mapping of radioactive contamination following the Fukushima nuclear catastrophe in , an important report on Monitoring and Assessment of Radiation Releases to the Environment has been initiated.
Funding for this work has been provided by the U.
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Radiation Science Three topical areas are fundamental from the point of view of basic science. First, quantities and units of radiation and radioactivity should be defined clearly and sensibly for effective communication.
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Second, techniques and instruments for radiation measurements need to be standardized for optimal performance. Third, basic physical data concerning interactions of radiation with matter must be established optimally in the light of the latest scientific results and updated continuously. These data are necessary in research on mechanisms of physical, chemical, and biological changes induced by radiation, as well as in application to medicine, industry, and radiation risk assessment. ICRU has been continuously studying all three of these areas and, from time to time, has issued results of its studies in many reports.
Subject matter treated in the reports include: radiation quantities and units in Report Nos. Report No. An updated report on Fundamental Quantities and Units has been completed and published, after revision, as Report No. It is difficult to compare or combine patient doses delivered with different beam qualities and under different conditions.
A report committee to compile a report on Bioeffect Modeling and Equieffective Dose Concepts in Radiation Therapy has recently been established and will address the issues involved and propose a uniform methodology. The naturally occurring radioactive gas radon is a major source of public exposure to ionizing radiation.
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The risk of developing cancer from medical imaging radiation exposure is generally very small, and it depends on: radiation dose - The lifetime risk of cancer increases the larger the dose and the more X-ray exams a patient undergoes. For a comparison of radiation doses associated with different imaging procedures see: Effective Doses in Radiology and Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine: A Catalog The medical community has emphasized radiation dose reduction in CT because of the relatively high radiation dose for CT exams as compared to radiography and their increased use, as reported in the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements NCRP Report No.
Balancing benefits and risks While the benefit of a clinically appropriate X-ray imaging exam generally far outweighs the risk, efforts should be made to minimize this risk by reducing unnecessary exposure to ionizing radiation. Patient factors are important to consider in this balance of benefits and risks. For example: Because younger patients are more sensitive to radiation, special care should be taken in reducing radiation exposure to pediatric patients for all types of X-ray imaging exams see the Pediatric X-ray Imaging webpage.
Special care should also be taken in imaging pregnant patients due to possible effects of radiation exposure to the developing fetus. The benefit of possible disease detection should be carefully balanced against the risks of an imaging screening study on healthy, asymptomatic patients more information on CT screening is available on the CT webpage. Information for Patients X-ray imaging CT, fluoroscopy, and radiography exams should be performed only after careful consideration of the patient's health needs. Informing their physician if they are pregnant or think they might be pregnant.
Asking the referring physician about the benefits and risks of imaging procedures, such as: How will the results of the exam be used to evaluate my condition or guide my treatment or that of my child? Are there alternative exams that do not use ionizing radiation that are equally useful? Asking the imaging facility: If it uses techniques to reduce radiation dose, especially to sensitive populations such as children.
About any additional steps that may be necessary to perform the imaging study e. If the facility is accredited. Accreditation may only be available for specific types of X-ray imaging such as CT. FDA information links for patients: Reducing Radiation from Medical X-rays — X-rays and their risks, radiation dose from common medical imaging procedures, and FDA's and consumers' role in reducing radiation exposure. X-Rays, Pregnancy and You Extensive information is available on types of X-ray imaging exams, diseases and conditions where different types of X-ray imaging is used, and on the risks and benefits of X-ray imaging.
Pregnancy and Children Information for Health Care Providers Principles of radiation protection: justification and optimization As highlighted in its Initiative to Reduce Unnecessary Radiation Exposure from Medical Imaging , the FDA recommends that imaging professionals follow two principles of radiation protection of patients developed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication , The Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection ; Publication , Radiological Protection in Medicine : Justification: The imaging procedure should be judged to do more good e.
Therefore, all examinations using ionizing radiation should be performed only when necessary to answer a medical question, treat a disease, or guide a procedure.
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The clinical indication and patient medical history should be carefully considered before referring a patient for any X-ray examination. Optimization: X-ray examinations should use techniques that are adjusted to administer the lowest radiation dose that yields an image quality adequate for diagnosis or intervention i. The technique factors used should be chosen based on the clinical indication, patient size, and anatomical area scanned; and the equipment should be properly maintained and tested.
General recommendations The FDA recommends that health care professionals and hospital administrators take special care to reduce unnecessary radiation exposure by following these steps: Referring physicians should: Become educated about radiation safety principles and how to communicate them to patients. Reduce the number of inappropriate referrals i. Imaging teams e.
Develop protocols and technique charts or use those available on the equipment that optimize exposure for a given clinical task and patient group see also the Pediatric X-ray Imaging webpage. Use dose reduction tools where available. If questions arise, ask the manufacturer for assistance on how to appropriately and safely use the device. Implement regular quality control tests to ensure that equipment is functioning properly.
As part of a quality assurance program emphasizing radiation management, monitor doses to patients and check the facility doses against diagnostic reference levels , where available. Hospital administrators should: Ask about the availability of dose reduction features and design features for use with special patient groups i.
Assure appropriate credentials and training emphasizing coverage of radiation safety for medical personnel using X-ray imaging equipment. Ensure that the principles of radiation protection are incorporated into the facility's overall quality assurance program.
Enroll their facility in an accreditation program for specific imaging modalities, where available. Information for the imaging team Patient radiation dose is considered to be optimized when images of adequate quality for the desired clinical task are produced with the lowest amount of radiation considered to be reasonably necessary. Here are the rudiments of QA dose monitoring and follow-up: Recording of modality specific dose indices, associated equipment settings, and patient habitus, obtained, for example, from data of the DICOM radiation dose structured report.
In fluoroscopy, typical dose indices include reference air kerma and air kerma-area product. Investigative follow-up of circumstances associated with such deviations.
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Periodic reviews with respect to updating current norms or adopting new norms. Reviews can be based on practice trends over time, equipment operator or medical practitioner performance, or authoritatively established dose-index values associated with the most common exams and procedures. These dose index data can be used to calculate diagnostic reference levels for use in quality assurance programs. Gray et al. McCollough et al. Image Wisely statement on Diagnostic Reference Levels Rosenstein, Health Physics Vol. Module 01 "Overview of Radiation protection in Diagnostic Radiology" includes a discussion of how DRLs are used as part of facility quality assurance.