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System34 , 2, — London: Continuum. Promoting reflection in language teacher education through case-based teaching. The New English Teacher1 , 61— Critical incidents in ELT initial teacher training. ELT Journal62 , 1, 3— RELC Journal39 , 2, — The novice teacher. New York: Cambridge University Press. Novice-service language teacher development: bridging the gap between preservice and in-service education and development.

Featherstone, H. Feiman-Nemser, S. From preparation to practice: designing a continuum to strengthen and sustain teaching. Teachers College Record , , — Freeman, D. Knowing into doing: teacher education and the problem of transfer. Li, D. Hong Kong: City University Press. Reconceptualizing the knowledge-base of language teacher education. Graves, K. The curriculum of second language teacher education. Huberman, M. The professional life cycle of teachers. Teachers College Record , 91 , 1, 31— The Lives of Teachers. New York: Teachers College Press.

Jalongo, M. Johnson, K. The role of theory in second language teacher education. Innovation through teacher education programs. Hyland, L. New York: Routledge. Kessler, G. Formal and informal CALL preparation and teacher attitude toward technology. Computer Assisted Language Learning , 20 , 2, — Mann, S. The role of mentoring in supporting novice English teachers in Hong Kong.

Oxford: Oxford University Press , invited - Current perspectives on teaching the four skills.

Classroom talk. Brown Ed. Pragmatics vol. Jacob Mey Elsevier, , invited - Analyses of L2 text and what can be learned from them. Functions of personal examples and narratives in L1 and L2 academic prose. Atkinson, W. Grabe, V. Eggington Eds. Multilingual Matters, - Hedging, inflating, and persuading in L2 academic writing. Tense, aspect, and the passive voice in L1 and L2 academic texts. Simplicity without elegance: Features of sentences in L1 and L2 academic texts.

Adverbial markers and tone in L1 and L2 students' writing. Expressions of L1 literacy in L2 writing. Li Ed. University Press of America, Teaching grammar in writing classes: Tenses and cohesion. Hinkel and S. Fotos Eds. Why English passive is difficult to teach and learn. Giving examples and telling stories in academic essays.

Teaching English

Matters of cohesion in L2 academic texts. Celce-Murcia Ed. The goals and the politics of L2 writing instruction. Soviet immigrants in the U. McKay and S.

Wong Eds. Cambridge University Press, Objectivity and credibility in L1 and L2 academic writing. The past tense and temporal verb meanings in a contextual frame. Appropriateness of advice: DCT and multiple choice data.

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When in Rome: Evaluations of L2 pragmalinguistic behaviors. The use of modal verbs as a reflection of cultural values. An effective in-service TEYLTED strategy needs to ensure equitable access to all of these different forms of support for practising TEYL teachers who are typically dispersed across a wide geographical area. This entails delivery of a workshop to a group of trainers, teachers or lead teachers who then disseminate the workshop to other teachers in their region or school. Cascade models are attractive because they are cost-effective and use existing staff as co-trainers.

However, cascading can, as Hayes , p. Hayes proposes two strategies to maximise the efficacy of cascade models of training delivery: firstly to consult a range of stakeholders when designing the materials so that the presentation of new ideas is carefully aligned with and accommodates teaching realities; secondly, to ensure that reflective opportunities for trainers are incorporated in training material at each stage of the cascade, allowing for a degree of reinterpretation and increased sense of ownership of the material by all those involved in delivery.

Technology offers considerable potential to maximise access to both formal and more informal forms of in-service education and is gaining in popularity around the world. With respect to the delivery of training workshops in particular, it can be deployed to provide teachers with clear models of good practice which can be shared online or through DVDs. It also offers the potential for training sessions to be delivered via video links or for online teacher training modules to be taken by large numbers of teachers long-distance.

Apart from technological issues, such as teacher access to a fast and reliable internet connection, without sufficient attention to two-way interactive opportunities and activities which encourage teachers to reflect on and process new ideas, there is a danger that online training programmes may serve as more of a briefing function than a genuine opportunity for teacher learning. In addition, these require moderators to help ensure teachers stay on track and maintain their motivation, particularly as drop rates are often very high Rich et al Bearing these points in mind, technological forms of training often work best as a compliment to face-to-face delivery of teacher education.

While the use of technology for training purposes needs to be approached with some caution, it offers considerable potential as a way to provide informal support for TEYL teachers. In a number of countries, online portals created via platforms like Moodle are proving to be an effective way of sharing resources including for those teachers who are developing themselves and creating networking opportunities for teachers via discussion forums e.

In what follows, an account of good practice with regard to each of these dimensions will be considered. Consultation with teachers and other stakeholders in schools and observation of TEYL classrooms are therefore important steps to be taken. More broadly, as the results of studies discussed earlier in the chapter have highlighted, effective TEYLTED provision needs to include attention to targeted support in all of the following: Knowledge of and fluency in English.

Knowledge of the different cognitive, affective and psychomotor stages children journey through. Drawing upon the review of teacher learning presented earlier in the chapter as well as the perspectives of teachers identified in research studies above, a number of operating principles should underpin the development of effective pedagogical approaches to deliver the content areas outlined above. TEYL teachers benefit from pedagogic approaches which help them make connections between new input received and their pre-existing understanding and experience of classroom teaching and learning.

As Hayes argues, this means that support initiatives should be school focused at least, if not also school based. Given the ongoing and lifelong nature of teacher learning, it is important to employ pedagogical approaches which help teachers to continue to develop over and beyond any formal input sessions that they receive. This means that it is important to ensure that support initiatives are designed not only to focus on equipping teachers with new knowledge and skills but also to serve an enabling function, providing them with resources and strategies to ensure they have the capacity to continue their learning journey over and beyond any formal input they receive.

Beliefs are powerful filters which impact how far and in what ways teachers engage with new ideas, but these are often tacit. Dialogue and collaboration with other teachers is a powerful way to support teacher learning, and finding ways to create and increase opportunities for peer learning are therefore important. These core principles are ones that underline the importance of placing the teacher and their teaching worlds at the centre of TEYLTED endeavours. In terms of formal provision, whether in the form of pre-service programmes or in-service workshops and reflection, experimentation and dialogue should be combined in ways that: Demonstrate the interconnection between theory and practice.

Help teachers develop action plans for future practice. In pre-service programmes in particular, attention to practice implications should be seen as an essential component of content modules, such as those which focus on theoretical knowledge, language proficiency and awareness and teaching methodology, rather than confined to the teaching practice component of the programme, as is often the case.

Not only will this enable student teachers to better see the relevance of these modules to their future teaching, but it can also help ready teachers for the final practicum component of their studies and ensure this is a more beneficial and enriching experience. Table 3. Teachers need sustained support over time if they are to transform their practice, and it is important for attention to be given to issues of continuity when planning TEYLTED initiatives. In pre-service programmes, the training of school-based personnel who can act as effective mentors and coaches during the practicum stage is therefore crucial.

With regard to in-service provision, where possible, adopting a day-release approach to training is helpful as this allows teachers to try out ideas in school and share their successes and challenges in a follow-on training session. However, where this is not practicable, online forums can play an important support role as discussed above. More broadly, promoting classroom research with teachers is helpful as it provides teachers with a useful set of techniques and strategies to promote self-initiated cycles of reflection and experimentation Wright Introduce the focus of the session e.

Time permitting, participants can plan how they will implement new ideas and undertake micro-teaching. The results of these evaluations can then be fed back into improving course design for future cohorts of teachers. Although still small, the growing body of research and literature reported in this chapter has provided some important insights into quality TEYLTED provision for a rapidly growing and complex TEYL workforce.

It has also signalled some of the contextual constraints that can diminish the quality and likely impact of these initiatives, such as issues around access and the quality of teacher educators. More research into these complicating factors alongside work on the impact of school cultures is important in identifying appropriate forms of effective TEYLTED at a local level and understanding teacher investment in these.

At a practical level, to improve the quality of TEYLTED going forward it is important that more attention be paid to improving the expertise of TEYL teacher educators who play a crucial role in determining the quality of the support that teachers receive. In addition, as discussed above, more attention also needs to be paid to the development and application of a systematic strategy for the evaluation of TEYLTED provision to establish its efficacy and quality.

second language resources, teacher education, and research

This article illustrates how an effective teacher education strategy can be developed to help ensure the success of a TEYL reform. This book provides a clear and accessible account of how to design and implement effective teacher education programmes. Research on learning Englis Teaching English to young l Materials for early languag We are using cookies to provide statistics that help us give you the best experience of our site. You can find out more in our Privacy Policy. By continuing to use the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies. Free trial voucher code.

Invalid Search. Enter keywords, authors, DOI etc. Search History. Search history from this session 0. Metrics Views Historical perspectives The emergence of ELTED can be seen to be closely aligned with the development of the field of foreign and additional English language teaching as a distinct professional activity.

The expansion of ELTED provision A growing emphasis on ELTED with its role in maintaining professional standards to ensure a well-qualified and well-prepared teaching workforce is one of the key indicators of the growing professionalization of the field of TESOL Burns and Richards , and this is reflected in the expectation in most countries that prospective English language teachers complete a formal accredited pre-service training programme typically comprising a number of content modules and a practicum component Wright The development and evolution of TEYLTED While the introduction of English into primary school curricula in a number of countries in western Europe started more than 25 years ago, it is arguably the dramatic increase in the numbers of teachers engaged in teaching ever younger learners, both in Europe and elsewhere, in the past 15 years that has been the main driver for an emphasis on the importance of TEYLTED initiatives in recent literature.

Critical issues and topics As is evident from the historical overview above, while TEYLTED is now firmly established as a priority in many countries worldwide it is still very much a work in progress. Access to TEYLTED There is a widespread consensus that currently there is a shortage of qualified teachers to address the needs of the huge numbers of children engaged in EFL worldwide, not only in countries with relatively short histories of TEYL, such as a number of Asian countries, but also in countries where English has been part of the primary curriculum for some time Garton,; Baldauf et al.

Meeting the needs of a complex TEYL teacher demographic Another challenge is the huge diversity in the sorts of teachers currently involved in TEYL, particularly at the primary level, as large-scale transnational studies undertaken by Emery and Rixon have shown. Current contributions and research In this part of the chapter, literature and the results of published research studies which are contributing to our current understanding of TEYLTED are considered.

Challenges to the success of TEYLTED provision While research studies have tended to address the issue of quality TEYLTED provision through the lens of content and teacher education pedagogy as described above, a small number of studies have also identified other challenges which can affect the success of teacher education initiatives. Technology-enhanced solutions to issues of access Technology offers considerable potential to maximise access to both formal and more informal forms of in-service education and is gaining in popularity around the world.

Good practice in the delivery of effective TEYLTED Drawing upon the review of teacher learning presented earlier in the chapter as well as the perspectives of teachers identified in research studies above, a number of operating principles should underpin the development of effective pedagogical approaches to deliver the content areas outlined above.

Step 2 Ask them to interpret or explain the experience e. Step 5 Process the various opinions and viewpoints to derive new or revised perceptions and knowledge.

The Routledge Handbook of English Language Teacher Education - CRC Press Book

Step 6 Invite participants to reflect on new ideas to try out in future practice. Step 7 Time permitting, participants can plan how they will implement new ideas and undertake micro-teaching. Based on Malderez and Wedell Future directions Although still small, the growing body of research and literature reported in this chapter has provided some important insights into quality TEYLTED provision for a rapidly growing and complex TEYL workforce.

The Cambridge guide to second language teacher education. New York: Cambridge University Press. Primary English teacher education in Europe. ELT Journal, 68 3 , — Teaching teachers: Processes and practices. London: Bloomsbury. Policies, difficult circumstances, the age debate. Baldauf, R. Current Issues in Language Planning, 12 2 , — Borg, S. Language teacher cognition. In Burns, A. New York: Cambridge University Press, — Brining, D. The challenges faced by teachers of English as a foreign language to young learners in international contexts and their training and development needs and opportunities.

Unpublished PhD thesis. Burns, A. Introduction: Second language teacher education. New York: Cambridge University Press, 9— Butler, Y. What level of English proficiency do elementary school teachers need to attain to teach EFL?