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Institutional Login. Log in to Wiley Online Library. Purchase Instant Access. View Preview. The Flying Burrito Brothers. From Genesis to Revelation.
Freedom Suite. The Mothers of Invention. Quicksilver Messenger Service. At Your Birthday Party. Blue Matter. Family Entertainment. Just to Satisfy You. My Way. The Velvet Underground.
With a Little Help from My Friends. On the Threshold of a Dream. The Chicago Transit Authority. Our Mother the Mountain. Ramblin' Gamblin' Man. Unfinished Music No. After the Rain. Everybody Knows This Is Nowhere. Rehearsals for Retirement. Pickin' Up the Pieces. More Today Than Yesterday. Surround Yourself with Cilla. Let the Sunshine In. The Age of Aquarius. Booker T. California Bloodlines. John Stewart. Gettin' Down to It. Last Exit. The Young Mods' Forgotten Story.
The Impressions. Suitable for Framing. Brave New World. From Elvis in Memphis. Deep Purple. Concerto in B. Just Good Old Rock and Roll. Pongo en tus manos abiertas. Bubblegum, Lemonade, and Something for Mama. Blind Faith. Here We Are Again. Country Joe and the Fish. More of Old Golden Throat. By the beginning of the early Jenney Creek phase B. Participation in a farreaching interaction sphere has been documented for these earliest settled groups.
Evidence for the importation of exotic goods from the Guatemalan highlands, the Motagua Valley, and the Caribbean coast predate the late Middle Formative record for these activities at Barton Ra mie Willey et al. The presence of dedication and termination offerings, feasting debris, figurines, carved greenstone, and the incised elements and motifs of the early ceramics, indicate the importance of symbolism and ritual ideology at an early date in the Maya Lowlands.
The iconographic motifs of the Kanocha phase at Blackman Eddy indicate that the earliest set tled groups of the Belize Valley participated in a pan-Mesoamerican symbol system. The investigations at Blackman Eddy have revealed Jenney Creek phase material in sealed stratigraphic context.
The associated radiocarbon dates for these remains confirm the early Middle Formative date B. C for early Jenney Creek ceramic remains Table 2. St ratigraphically beneath, and thus pre-dating, these remains at Blackman Eddy are depos its of the Kanocha phase in place by at least B.
These concern the origins of the ceramic types, their developmental relationships to Jenney Creek, and their relationship to the early ceramics of the Peten and northern Belize. The authors would like to acknowledge the Instit ute of Archaeology, Belmopan, Belize for their continued support of this project. We would also like to thank our project staff, student participants, and Belizean assistants for their dedicated efforts.
The friendship and hospitality of the people of Blackman Eddy village and San Ignacio made our work especially enjoyable. Special thanks go to the Bob Jones and Busman Arnold families for all of their generosity and help. FAMSI grant numbers and Note 1. The numbering of St ructure B1 architecture presented here differs from and supercedes earlier presentations of these data.
References Cited Andrews, E.
Arcology: The Music of Paul Chambers, Volume Two
In Vision and Revision in Maya Studies ed. Clancy and P. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque. Rice, P. Rice, and A. Westview Press, Boulder. Awe, Jaime J. Unpublished Ph. Ball, Joseph W. Killian, pp. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa. Second Preliminary Report. Manuscript, San Diego State University. Ancient Mesoamerica 2 2 Ancient Mesoamerica Brown, M. Kathryn, and James F. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Anthropological Association in Philadelphia, December.
Brown, M. Kathryn, D. Glassman, O. Ford, and S. Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto. Cheetham, David T. Healy and J. Awe, pp. Peterborough, Ontario, Canada. Culbert, T. In Origins of Maya Civilization ed. Adams, pp. Demarest, Arthur A. Rice and R. Sharer, part ii, pp. BAR International Series ii.
Oxford, England. Fash, William R. Fedick, Scott. McAnany and B. Isaac, Culbert and D. Rice, pp. Journal of Field Archaeology Garber, James F. Driver, L. Sullivan, and D. In Cuello an early Maya Community in Belize. Edited by Norman Hammond.
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Gifford, James C. Ceramica de Cultural Maya Cambridge, Massachusetts. In Columbian Consequences edited by D. Thomas, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. Dumbarton Oaks, Washington DC.
Healy, Paul F. Journal of field Archaeology 17 3 Ancient Mesoamerica Hester, Thomas R. Healy, pp. Hohmann, Bobbi, Terry G. Jones, Grant. Kautz and E. Archaeology Joyce, Rosemary and John S. Latin American Antiquity 12 1 Kosakowski, Laura J. The University of Arizona Press, Tucson. Powis, Terry G. Sharer, Robert J. American Antiquity 35 4 : Strelow, D. Willey, Gordon R. Bullard Jr. Glass, and James C. What archaeologists kn ow about the Early Classic period is based predominately on excavations at large sites such as Tikal and Holmul.
In the Belize valley, so few sites exhibit Early Classic material remains that researchers suggest a severe depopulation of the area and aggregation of the remaining populace into a few centers such as Actuncan. Recent excavations at the site may clarify the organization of a relatively small Ea rly Classic center and the role of pan-Maya styles in a regional ceramic complex. Introduction The Early Classic is that time period between A. During this time, leaders formalized their positions as rulers and reigned over autonomous kingdoms where innovations in monumental architect ure, hieroglyphic writing, and decorative arts flourished.
How leaders institutionalized their positions as rulers however, is a source of debate. Despite the anthropological significance of this debate, the Early Classic is one of the least understood archaeological time periods in the Maya lowlands. Currently, much of our understanding of this critical time period is based on the tomb and temple excavations at a few large sites, such as Tikal Jones ; Jones and Satterthwaite , Uaxactun Ricketson and Ricketson ; A.
From hieroglyphic monuments found in these sites, researchers have reconstructed political histories of a few Early Classic kings complete with detailed information concerning their marriages and military campaigns. As invaluable as these data are, they present a top down view of polit ical relations that took place at a few large centers, rather than an understanding of the developmental processes that lead to the institutionalization of kingship and political hierarchies.
In many areas outside the central Peten or northern Belize, where centers are small and lack extensive documentary information, even less is known about the formation of kingship. Here, so few sites exhibit civic architecture dated to this period that researchers Awe ; Demarest ; Ford ; Lincoln suggest a severe depopulation of hinterland areas and aggregation of the remaining populace into a few large sites.
Although this is a plausible explanation for the lack of Early Classic site components, it is also possible that we have yet to fully recognize the material indicators of this time period. Archaeologists working outside the central Peten have relied predominately on elite pottery styles, many Research Reports in Belizean Archaeology Vol. These elite types, however, are found in very small fre quencies in hinterland sites Adams ; Ball ; Gifford ; Sabloff When diagnostic types are found, they generally come from cave and tomb contexts, or possibly civic architecture, but rarely are they found in households.
Evidently, archaeologists can identify the Early Classic ritual complex, but have a more difficult time recognizing the domestic assemblage. This pattern has lead some researchers Awe ; Demarest ; Ford ; Lincoln to suggest that Early Classic assemblages contain mostly long-lived Formative pottery types and regional styles not id entified in seminal ceramic reports.
If this is indeed the case, our current typological scheme artificially inflates the number of Late Formative sites and falsely exaggerates the decline in Early Classic sites. To understand the Early Classic period, archaeologists need to do two tasks. First, we need to deve lop models for the rise of kingship. Second, we must engage in chronology building in order to test these models.
My research at Actuncan seeks to clarify the ceramic se quence in the Belize valley, and address socio-political and economic underpinnings of early kingship in a hinterland polity. Parameters for Understanding the Rise of Kingship Many Mayanists favor a model that emphasizes the role of ritual and public display as the initial source of kingly power Demarest ; Freidel ; Freidel and Schele In a recen t article, Patricia McAnany elaborates on the importance of cosmology for the institutionalization of kingship in the Maya region, but also considers a set of nonideational factors for the rise of the political authority.
She proposes a set of seven factors critical to the rise of kingship in the Maya lowlands: 1 hierarchical organization of kin groups, 2 intera ctive peer-polities, 3 a military tradition, 4 presence of writing, 5 exclusive access to supernaturals, 6 ancestor worship, and 7 wealth accumulation. Although these parameters were originally advanced by K.
Chang for understanding the rise of Chinese states, McAnany applies them to the ancient Maya since these two societies share similar underlying societal st ructures. At this juncture, I want to stress that this is not a universal explanation for the emergence of rulers. Clearly, the Inka state developed without the use of writing.
Nonetheless, these precepts illustrate how control over knowledge, manpower, a nd wealth could be used to transform an existing ranked organization into a state. To understand how Early Classic kings institutionalized their authority, archaeologists must investigate the Late Formative period B. In this paper, I will use the general designation Late Formative to refer to that time span which encompasses both the Late and Terminal Formative periods since these underlying conditions were not confined to the Terminal Formative period.
Actuncan is an excellent site to view the institutionalization of Maya kingship since it contains both Late Formative and Early Classic deposits. Below, I discuss five out of the seven characteristics with information from the site of Actuncan in the Upper Belize Valley. I will not focus on a military tradition and writing, since I have not found evidence of these characteristics at Actuncan; however, I do think they played a role in the rise of state level society in the area.
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LeCount 29 Figure 1. Sites in the Upper Belize Valley. The extensive distribution of Chicanel ceramics, with their typical red to orange waxy surface treatment, across the lowlands can be used as evidence for extensive interactions between sites. Actuncan is arguably the most architecturally impressive Late Formative site in the upper Belize valley.
Excavations at the site by Jam es McGovern , , greatly expanded our knowledge of this important site. McGovern documented two main zones of architecture F igure 2. Actuncan South is dominated by a Formative triadic temple complex. The complex rests on a person-made platform that is 72 by m in size, and the primary pyramid rises 32 m above the surrounding terrain.
Most of this platform and temple complex was built from the Middle to Late Formative, but modifications to the structures were made throughout the Classic period. The Formative center was connected to the northern portion of the site by a wide causeway that opens into Plaza C. This area contains a ball court, range structures, and pyramids. To the east are smaller plazas defined by civic buildings and possibly elite residential compounds. House mounds are located to the extreme north and west of the civic center, three of which I tested in The site of Actuncan.
LeCount McGovern placed 44 test pits into eight civic structures in Actuncan North and examined extensive looters trenches in the southern pyramidal complex. Using construction volumetrics, he determined that one-half of the northern civic architecture was built during the Late Formative, and onequarter was built during the Early Classic McGovern, personal communication Although none of the ei ght civic structures tested by McGovern appear to have been built entirely in the Early Classic, four out of eight structures were substantially modified during this time and the other four were built on Early Classic surfaces or middens.
Based on this sample, I can safely say that Actuncan was a burgeoning center during the Early Classic period. Hierarchical Kin Groups Archaeologists reconstruct social rank based on differences in the dimensions of house mounds. My sample size is too small to understand the range of house mound sizes at Actuncan, but it is apparent that some commoner households were large and longlived by the Late Formative. Plazuela 1 AP1 is a multi-mound group with four platforms, one on each side of a central patio. It measures Two out of the three plaza floors date to the Late Formative, and one to the Late Classic.
In the two smaller plazuelas AP-2 and AP-3 , basal occupation layers contain Early Classic materials, but not substantial architecture. Only at the largest plazuela is there evidence of a deeply stratified sequence. These data may support the current idea that the Belize valley experienced a population decline during the Early Classic. No domestic middens or architecture were found that date to this time span, and even in the largest and most long-lived household there appears to ha ve been a serious disruption in the plaza building sequence.
The number of people who resided at the Early Classic site may have been fairly small, even though there were significant civic building projects occurring at this time. Fred Valdez suggests that populations who built Early Classic civic architecture might have lived in dispersed farmsteads, yet to be detected by archaeologists. But it could also be argued that the vast majority of Early Classic domestic structures at Actuncan have yet to be found or recognized as such since houses might have been made of perishable materials and their residents may not have owned fancy pottery.
Ancestor Worship McAnany suggests that the Formative period Maya were organized into what Levi-Strauss called houses whose members worshiped their apical ancestors. From ethnographic research on ancestor veneration among modern Africa, Asia and Mayan groups, it is cl ear that only specific individuals become ancestors, most likely the founder of the lineage. Therefore, when archaeologists find burials of single adult males richly adorned in tombs below house floors, they assume these individuals were founders or important lineal descendants of the house.
Since the body or relic represents lineage ancestry, ancestor worship serves to entrench the principles of authority and rights to lineage property. The largest household at Actuncan, AP-1, contains two buria l crypts cut into the Terminal Formative period floor. The crypts capstones were not plastered over indicating that the contents co uld be exposed for 31 PAGE 41 Early Classic Actuncan ancesto r rituals during the Early Classic period. I excavated only the southern most crypt, in which I found a single adult laying face down with its head to the south. A small brown vessel effigy vessel in the shape of a bird rested mouth-up on top of the individuals toes Figure 3.
Similar plain effigy covers have been found at Holmul Merwin and Vaillant 1 plates 26a and 27 a-c , Uaxactun Smith Figure 29d-I , and Tikal Culbert Figure 16c , where they were associated with the initial phases of the Early Classic period.
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Figure 3. Brown ware effigy lid. Exclusive Access to Supernaturals Freidel and Schele reconstruct early kingship as a sham anistic position. By performing sacred ceremonies of renewal and fertility, the shaman transformed his or her religious role within the community to one that included political influence. The position became synonymous with the concept of ajaw a sacred ruler endowed with supernatural powers and the ability to communicate with divine ancestors. Aweinspiring rituals convinced less privileged households and small communities to pledge loyalty and labor to the ajaw During the Early Classic period, Maya kingship was transformed into a stable political institution by the adoption of genealogical principles of succession and the standardization of ritual practices.
This shift marks a fundamental change in the ideological underpinning of power from corporate to exclusive authority. Much evidence has been marshalled to support this model. At Cerros, Freidel and Schele ; also Schele and Freidel suggests that a Late Formative pyramid decorated with stucco panels along the terrace faade depicts celestial agents.
The structure acted as a stage where the shaman leader placed himself in a mediating position between the community and the four cycling cosmological powers which ensured agricultural fertility and the continuation of the cosmos. Early stelae also depict rulers as manipulators of the supernatural. For instance the Hauberg stela dated to A. During the Late Classic period, pyramids lacked stucco masks portraying supernaturals, and functioned predominately as funerary shrines for rulers. Late Classic stelae focus on the deeds of kings and queens, their royal parentage, and historical events Marcus Classic period religious and political power; therefore, focused on the exclusive power and privilege of rulership.
LeCount inte rprets the carved im age as representing a dancing individual who holds a feathered staff, probably in connection with autosacrifice. In the Early Classic, modification to the terraced and sloped faade included the addition of painted stucco masks similar in style to those found at the royal acropolis at Tika l. These monuments mirror the shifting focus of ritual described by Friedel and Schele. Wealth Accumulation My interest in portable wealth items focuses on their role as exchange items for funding political ambitions.
Leaders must reward loyal followers, support appointees, and fund projects using some type of staple or wealth finance DAltroy and Earle Staple finance generally involves tribute payments in kind to the central authority in the form of subsistence goods. Wealth finance involves the manufacture and procurement of special products that are used as a means of payment. Control over staple or wealth items was a prerequisite for funding political projects and personnel. This discussion brings us back to the question of Early Classic pottery. Why is it so rare in small domestic structures?
What can be suggested from the work at Actuncan is that Early Classic household assemblages look different than those found in civic contexts. I proposed th at the production and distribution of polychrome painted or elaborately carved Early Classic vessels were tightly controlled by elites.
Unlike the vast majority of Late Classic polychrome pottery, decorated Early Classic vessels may have functioned as true status symbols displaying information critical to political position. As inalienable wealth, basal flange bowls and tripod vases may have played an important role in the accession to leadership, and therefore, these items were buried with their owners. Here, Friedel and Scheles model appears to fit the data. Early Classic elites may have controlled ritual paraphernalia critical for performing ceremonies that legitimized their positions as kings.
However, if Early Classic diagnostics can be found in commoner contexts, then archaeologists must consider the role these vessels played in lineage life-cycle rituals. Discussion and Conclusion Up to this point, I have focused on som e of the pre-existing practices that made the rise of Maya kingship possible.
But how did leaders use these pract ices as resources to institutionalize the posit ion of kingship and transform relatively small chiefdom-level societies into larger states? I view this transformation as essentially a political process, but not one in which leaders tightly controlled all aspect of society. Rather, I propose that the instit utionalization of the office of kingship required leaders to delegate decisions and authority in order to expand power. If hierarchy is the key characteristic of state-level societies Marcus and Feinman , then one of the important differences between chiefdoms and states is the creation of new positions within a growing government.
People who filled these offices would have had some modicum of power. At Actuncan, where should I look for evidence of newly created hierar chies? Identifying Early Classic civic architecture, such as a royal residence or a standard two-room temple, is important since these structures represent the office of kings and priests. But households should also hold a key to understanding the institutionalization of kingship. According to Marcus , part of the process by which emerging Maya rulers institutionalized their elevated positions involved serving the bonds of kinship that had once linked leaders to community members.
This process resulted in a two class-endogamous society and a well-developed ideology of stratification in which upper-stratum nobles claimed separate 33 PAGE 43 Early Classic Actuncan descent f rom lower-stratum commoners. Many large households, especially those associated with founding families, therefore had the most to lose in the political and social transformations associated with kingship. If kings attempted to instigate strategies that effectively excluded kin-based leaders from overarching control of social interactions, economic resources, and political appointments, then founding families might have lost long-term c ontrol over labor, land, and wealth.
In other words, their influence contracted rather th an expanded. On the other hand, newly founded Early Classic households might have gained status and wealth as emerging officer holders and supporters of the state. If this is the case, then Early Classic households that appear larger than expected given normal developmental cycles may have benefited from recently acquired wealth and status gained as favors from the king for their loyal support in the face of kin-based authority.
To conclude, the difference between leaders and rulers might hinge upon their ability to delegate power and privilege to non-kin officers. The archaeological evidence for these processes will be written not in the concentration of power in older institutions, but in the promotion an d proliferation of new titles, new offices, and new wealth.
In conclusion, Actuncan is an excellent location to study the institutionalization of kingship since its occupation spans the Late Formative and Early Classic periods, when the processes that led to the institutionalization of kingship and the creation of a hierarchy of political offices likely occurred in the Upper Belize Valley. My preliminary investigations confirm that the Early Classic period was indeed a time of significant shifts in settlement, but more research is required to better understand the nature of socio-political organization at the site and the extent to which early leaders controlled access to economic resources such as agricultural and craft products.
Future fieldwork at Actuncan has three objectives: 1 to determine the distribution of staple versus wealth goods by excavating elite and commoner contexts, 2 to reconstruct the layout of the Early Classic center by testing civic ar chitecture, and 3 to clarify the chronology by collecting radiocarbon and pottery samples from stratified deposits. Determining the distribution of domestic goods, agricultural products and exotic items across house mounds allows archaeologists to infer how tightly elites regu lated production and consumption of goods in the Early Classic period.
Reconstructing the layout of the civic center in terms of the ki nds of civic buildings occupied during this period is an index for the size and complexity of th e political hierarchy. Clarifying the chronology will help archaeologists understand how rapidly Maya leaders consolidated their power.
Acknowledgements Funding was provided by the H. I particularly want to thank Jaime Awe, Richard Leventhal and Wendy Ashmore for their encouragement and help in securing my permit, and to Jason Yaeger, who offered good advice on excavation strategy. Jim Govern kindly provided field notes, slides, and maps of his pervious excavations at the site.
The Galvez family kindly allowed excavations on their land, and I appreciate Mr. Ramon Galvezs patience for any inconveniences that our work might have caused him. LeCount excellent food desires special praise. Last, but not least, many thanks are due to John and Judy Yaeger and Florentino Peados, who provided more than just food and shelter, but truly a home away from home. References Cited Adams, Richard. Harvard University. Cambridge, Mass.
Ashmore, Wendy and Richard M. Leventhal Xunantunich Reconsidered. Dissertation, Institute of Archaeology, University of London. Ball, Joseph. Middle American Research Institute Publication Tulane University, New Orleans. Coe and W. University Museum Monograph University Museum, University of Pennsylvania. Demarest, Arthur. Demarest and G. Conrad, pp. University of Washington Press, Seattle. DAltroy, Terrence. N, and Timothy. Current Anthropology Demarest, and G. University of Washington Press.
American Anthropologist Hanks and D. Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Jones, Christopher Cycles of Growth at Tikal. Culbert, pp. Jones, Christopher.
Tikal Report No 33A. University Museum, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Willey and Peter Mathews, pp. Publication No. Marcus, Joyce Mesoamerican Writing System. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N. Marcus, Joyce, and Gary Feinman Introduction. McAnany, Patricia A. In From Leaders to Rulers edited by J. Haas, pp. McGovern, James O. Leventhal, pp. Los Angeles, Ca.
Los Angeles, CA. Merwin, R. Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. Ricketson, Oliver, and E. Ricketson Uaxactun, Guatemala, Group E, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Publication Sabloff, Jeremy A. Braswell, pp. Smith, A. Smith, Richard E. Middle American Research Institute, Pub. Middleton, Santiago Juarez and Mary K.