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Managers as Leaders of Change
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- change agent (agent of change)?
- Ductility of Seismic-Resistant Steel Structures;
- Organizational change in quality management aspects: a quantitative proposal for classification.
- change management.
Wood Junior, T. Wood Junior. Yu, W. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Services on Demand Journal. Research Article Organizational change in quality management aspects: a quantitative proposal for classification. Abstract Periodically, organizations need to change the quality management aspects of processes and products in order to suit the demands of their internal and external consumer and competitor market environments.
Introduction Nowadays, companies are naturally in a constant state of change since they must operate in a completely multicultural environment in which changes occur constantly. Change management The product life cycle, a new type of treatment for the workforce, increasingly demanding consumers and progressive competition are responsible for the increase in the number of companies that undergo restructuring or profound changes.
Strengths Example Nature of the workforce Greater diversity of culture; ageing population; immigration and increased outsourcing. Technology Faster, cheaper and portable computers; Appearance and growth of social networks such as Facebook and Orkut ; Deciphering the human genetic code. Economic shocks Sudden increase of taxes to fight inflation; the collapse of the international financial system; global recession.
Competition Globalized competition; mergers and consolidations; increased government regulation of trade; Social trends Increasing global awareness; liberalization of attitudes toward gay, lesbian and transsexual employees; more tasks and multiple connectivity. International policies Anti-capitalist policies in Venezuela, Bolivia and Ecuador; opening markets in China; embargoes on Arab nations such as Iran and Iraq.
Types of change According to Schermerhorn Junior et al. Isolated: when the change occurs in a more specific way. It may be small changes, which occur daily throughout all the organization. Moreover, the accumulation of these changes can significantly change the organization.
Nadler et al. This may have different dimensions, but they are within the current context of the company. Discontinuous Change of an existing pattern, which occurs in periods of imbalance and involves one or more of the characteristics of company restructuring. Meyer et al.
Incrementalism as a mechanism. Life-cycle stage configuration transitions as a mechanism. Mintzberg et al. Example: Redefinition of job positions in a factory or development of a new product. Macrochange It affects the whole organization, including its relations with the environment. Example: Reposition in the marketplace or alteration of all its physical facilities.
Alignment between quality management and change management According to Smith , change management and quality management are directly related to one another and should be addressed together. Multicriteria method of decision support An organization always makes decisions based on several goals, particularly when the problem is in the highest strategic levels of the company.
Managing Change for Organizations | Boundless Management
Stage I — Selection of alternatives related to quality management The set of Alternatives A Through a brainstorm, the Delphi method or another quantitative method, the analyst along with the upper management and the key people of the organization will define the alternatives of improvement. Checklist Useful to register direct observations and help to gather facts about the process Oakland, Pareto chart A vertical bar chart that allows us to determine which problems to solve and determine the priority Brassard, Control Chart Monitoring a system in order to observe the existence of alterations to the expected average over time Brassard, Histogram It involves data measuring, revealing how much variation exists in any process Brassard, Scatter plot Study of the possible relation between two variables Brassard, Management and planning MP tools Relation diagram It shows many relevant factors in a situation or complex problem, indicating logical relations between the same factors by arrows Moura, Affinity diagram It groups together many sets of verbal data about a situation or problem by affinity or natural relation Moura, Tree diagram It shows the chaining of all secondary objectives and what is needed to achieve them Moura, Prioritization matrix It enables the establishment of a numerical order of priority for possible solutions, tasks or questions Moura, Relation matrix Multidimensional analysis, identifying the correlation level between two or more groups of factors Moura, PDPC diagram Exploration of possible ways and events, from an initial situation until a desired final situation Moura, Activities diagram It details the chaining of activities required to implement and monitor a plan Moura, Quality program 5S The management and participative program that aims to create adequate work conditions for all people at all hierarchical levels of the organization.
Quality Function Deployment QFD Method that seeks to ensure that the final Project of a product or service meets the needs and desires of clients Slack et al. Six Sigma The improvement program created by Motorola aiming to eliminate defects and improve the productive process of a product or service Slack et al. Set of support standards These standards, called supporting standards, are important for an efficient and effective QMS.
It is worth noting that the company will utilize and implement the supporting standards that best suit the needs and particularities of the company. These standards do not certify. Stage II — Defining the criterion The set of criteria G In this stage, we will define which criterion are the most important when classifying the type of change. In thousands of reals Brazilian currency. In months G 4 - Level of organization impact In every organization, there are planned and unplanned changes, all of which have consequences.
Likert scale 1 — There is no resistance 2 — Low level 3 — Intermediate 4 — High 5 — Very high G 7 - Given importance for hiring an external consultancy According to Garvin , it is necessary to invest time, resources, and money in search for quality, for many reasons, including environmental, safety, and competitive concerns. The quality improvement may be considered as a profitable target. Thus, the company needs to invest this time and resources in the selection and hiring of Accredited Certification Bodies ACB , as well as consultancy and training services.
Stage III — Definition of weights of criteria by the decision-maker After defining the criteria, the next stage is to define the weights of criteria, which represent the importance of each criterion for the goal. Stage IV — Measuring criterion The decision-maker in collaboration with an expert in quality management assess the performance of the alternatives in relation to each criterion in accordance with pre-established scales Table 4.
Stage VII — Developing and detailing an action plan It is possible to efficiently and effectively organize an action plan based on the results, thereby improving results in the organization. Application of the method In order to illustrate and validate the proposal of this study, the model was applied in two companies from the textile local productive arrangement LPA of Caruaru, Pernambuco, Brazil. Stage I — Alternatives related to quality management Due to the size and organizational maturity, one more possibility of improvement was considered A5 — Six sigma for company B according to Table 6.
ISO — Customer satisfaction - Guidelines for complaints handling in organizations. ISO - Customer satisfaction - Guidelines for monitoring and measuring. ISO — Quality management — Guidelines for training. Stage II — Defining criterion The criteria were the same for both companies and are those proposed in Table 4.
Stage III — Definition of the weights of criteria by the decision-maker The decision-maker and an expert defined the weights of criteria for the companies, as can be seen in Table 7. Criteria A B G1- Implementation cost 0. Stage V — Defining the profile of classes For the small-sized company and for the medium-sized company, two profiles regarding the three categories are shown in Table 9 and 10 , respectively. Definition of the thresholds for each rating of the decision-makers. Discussion The results are interesting and show the consistency and coherence of the proposed classification model.
Final considerations Based on the results of the present study, organizational change is commonplace in organizations, and extreme factors that make organizations desire to remain within the market place influence it. References Abraham, M. Received: July 22, ; Accepted: April 24, How to cite this article. Nature of the workforce. Greater diversity of culture; ageing population; immigration and increased outsourcing.
Faster, cheaper and portable computers; Appearance and growth of social networks such as Facebook and Orkut ; Deciphering the human genetic code. Sudden increase of taxes to fight inflation; the collapse of the international financial system; global recession. Globalized competition; mergers and consolidations; increased government regulation of trade;.
Increasing global awareness; liberalization of attitudes toward gay, lesbian and transsexual employees; more tasks and multiple connectivity. International policies. Continuous Constant, cumulative and evolutionary change. Microchange It is focused within the organization.
Traditional Quality Tools. Graphic representation showing all steps of the process Brassard, Useful to register direct observations and help to gather facts about the process Oakland, Pareto chart. A vertical bar chart that allows us to determine which problems to solve and determine the priority Brassard, Control Chart. Monitoring a system in order to observe the existence of alterations to the expected average over time Brassard, It involves data measuring, revealing how much variation exists in any process Brassard, Cause-and-effect diagram also called Ishikawa or fishbone chart.
Scatter plot. Study of the possible relation between two variables Brassard, Management and planning MP tools. Relation diagram. It shows many relevant factors in a situation or complex problem, indicating logical relations between the same factors by arrows Moura, Affinity diagram. It groups together many sets of verbal data about a situation or problem by affinity or natural relation Moura, Tree diagram. It shows the chaining of all secondary objectives and what is needed to achieve them Moura, Prioritization matrix.
It enables the establishment of a numerical order of priority for possible solutions, tasks or questions Moura, Relation matrix. Multidimensional analysis, identifying the correlation level between two or more groups of factors Moura, PDPC diagram. Exploration of possible ways and events, from an initial situation until a desired final situation Moura, Activities diagram.
It details the chaining of activities required to implement and monitor a plan Moura, Quality program. The management and participative program that aims to create adequate work conditions for all people at all hierarchical levels of the organization. Method that seeks to ensure that the final Project of a product or service meets the needs and desires of clients Slack et al. Failure mode and effects analysis —FMEA. It identifies failures before they occur using a checklist. To remain on top, today companies have to undergo through progressive transformation and evolve as per the changing business environment.
Effective Change Management involves a comprehensive and an integrated effort from all the levels of the management. Successful change management involves consideration of several factors, which have been described below:. Effective Planning: This is critical for ensuring successful change to happen. This stage essentially involves definition and documentation of objectives to be attained from change management and also the strategies for realizing those objectives.
It aims at addressing the vital questions of who, what, why, when, where and how involved in the implementation of any change management programme. It takes into context the current situation and equally assesses the impact of change initiatives on the futuristic strategies of the organization, the people involved in it as well as the stakeholders connected with it. If the vision is not defined properly or shared, seeking the involvement of all the stakeholders in the process of change may be difficult.
Lack of vision and direction, may result in misaligned approach, incompatible outcomes and may dissolve the long term benefits of change initiatives. Documentation of the objectives, defining the road map or the development of the change plan for implementing change management successfully. Documentation of the change management objectives, provides a strategic direction and justifies the rationale of a change initiatives along with the resources required for it to happen.
It provides a bigger picture regarding the magnitude and complexities involved in the entire process of change management. How a change management effort may affect the key stakeholders, people, processes and the organization as a whole. Plans for implementing the change, provide a description on how the change would be communicated to the people or the stakeholders who are connected with it.
Highlight the resources involved or the timelines within which the results are supposed to be achieved. Lewin's organizational change theory was used in two of the case studies of research undertaken in health promotion: in one case study, it was used to assist with conceptual analysis of capacity building implementation strategies.
The second case study was about the implementation of health promotion technology in which Lewin's work was used as the basis for a selective coding framework for content analysis of qualitative data that were gathered Heward et al. Analysis of each case study indicated that efficiency, effectiveness and sustainability can be maximized by incorporating organizational change as a central component of health promotion practice and research.
Moving—is the implementation and trialling aspect of change, involving research, action and learning. Refreezing—organizational norms, culture, practices and policies becoming realigned to support the continuation of the change. For example, aligning pay and reward systems, re-engineer measurement systems, create new organizational structures Lewin, c. Diffusion theory describes the communication of messages about an innovation within a social system. Rogers Rogers, identifies three key characteristics that relate to an organization's propensity for innovation: individual leader characteristics, internal characteristics of organizational structure and external characteristics of the organization.
Within these broad categories, there are sub-variables such as organization size and leadership for change, which positively or negatively impact an organization's capacity for innovation. Organizations go through five stages as part of the diffusion of innovation process. An adopted innovation proceeds through the three stages in the implementation phase. Stages of the innovation process in organizations. Adapted from Rogers Rogers, Later stages in the innovation process cannot be undertaken until earlier stages have been completed, either explicitly or implicitly.
Champions should have influence within the organization in which change is taking place, to energize the initiative, and should possess negotiation skills Steckler and Goodman, ; Rogers, Champions are key for sustainability of health promotion initiatives O'Loughlin et al. Gates et al. Focus group discussions were held with managers and staff to explore perceptions concerning the relative advantage, compatibility and complexity of actions to address these behaviours.
These revealed individual and workplace factors that needed to be addressed to reduce barriers to adoption. Theories-in-use are motives, values and beliefs that are translated into action and are implicit in what people do as managers and employees. On the other hand, espoused theory of action refers to the concept to which managers and employees give allegiance if they are asked to communicate their actions to others.
However, the theory that actually governs individuals' actions is their theory-in-use. For example, a manager's espoused theory may be that health promotion strategies should be based on a review of the current evidence of what is best practice. Effectiveness in organizational learning results from developing congruence between theory-in-use and espoused theory. For both Model 1 and Model 2 theories-in-use, three elements influence the type of learning that an organization will experience.
Single-loop learning involves the detection and correction of error. Where something goes wrong, an initial port of call for many people is to look for an action that will address and work within the existing governing variables beliefs and philosophies of the organization. Double-loop learning is learning that occurs when an organization's governing variables are subjected to critical scrutiny. This type of learning may lead to an alteration of existing governing variables and ultimately shift the way in which strategies and consequences are framed. For example, this may involve the modification of an organization's underlying norms, policies and objectives.
Organizations that promote double-loop learning are likely to be more favourable settings for health promoters who are seeking to influence the values, beliefs and actions of an organization. This is because health promotion ideologies such as health equity may be viewed as an innovative change to strategy, practice and structure.
Governing variables are beliefs, philosophies of the organization and workers within the organization. Action strategies are actions that will be executed depending on the governing variables. Consequences of action are broken down into two categories: consequences for the behavioural world and consequences for learning. The value of theory that informs an open and reflective learning culture within organizations was highlighted in the SPEC: Learning and Changing by Doing project Evans et al. To achieve its community health and justice goals, the project adopted an internal organizational learning lens to identify the conditions needed to support external community engagement and mobilization.
These conditions included critical capacity and consciousness , shown by an awareness of the role of power dynamics, an orientation towards justice, an ecological approach and collaborative practice Evans et al. Schein's work exploring organizational culture provides valuable insight for change practitioners seeking to modify culture, that is, to make an innovation central to what is believed and done.
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Schein Schein, presents a model identifying different levels of organizational culture, using case studies from two multinational corporations. The organizational cultures of the two settings were then analyzed in three categories: i artefacts are visible things about the group, such as the physical environment, organizational structures, clothing and language; ii espoused beliefs and values are philosophies, goals and strategies that have become socially validated and confirmed through a shared experience by a group and iii underlying assumptions are taken for granted with little variation, because they have come about from continued success in the implementation of certain beliefs.
Underlying assumptions can be so strong within groups that behaviours based on any other values or beliefs are unthinkable. According to Schein Schein, , culture is formed through the beliefs and values of organizational leaders. These values inform the implementation of certain actions, and the view that any subsequent success of those actions is a result of effective organizational leadership and the culture and values it sustains.
Assumptions within an organization are difficult to change as they are often regarded as non-negotiable values. Health promoters who are seeking to influence change in their own organizations need to analyze the culture of the targeted subgroup, as well as the broader culture of the organization, to identify the most conducive settings for change.
In a Pennsylvanian study of organizational culture in nursing homes, Scalzi et al. Scalzi et al. Pettigrew et al. Their work is relevant to change within the public sector and bureaucratic organizations in particular. For example, Pettigrew et al. These variables were derived from studies of change in the National Health Service NHS in the s and include quality and coherence of policy, availability of key people leading change, long-term environmental pressure, supportive organizational culture, effective managerial-clinical relations, cooperative inter-organizational networks, simplicity and clarity of goals and priorities and fit between the district's change agenda and its locale.
The authors reported that a shared vision that could be adopted by a stable workforce was crucial, so too was a sense of crisis in the broader context for adding pressure for change. Furthermore, a setting that values learning, evaluation and skill over status with workers who had a foot in both clinical and managerial camps was an enabler for leading change. Other variables that were found to be enablers for change included networking and sharing information across agencies, having simple goals, patience and persistence in implementation, and understanding external agendas, obstacles and opportunities for making the change fit for purpose Pettigrew et al.
The aim is to design a health initiative to fit within a receptive organizational context by ensuring that it accommodates the needs of that organization. This may involve a health promotion practitioner working to modify aspects of the organizational context internally or externally as required or feasible to achieve an agreeable fit between the goals of the health intervention and that organizational context Pettigrew et al.
Recent discussions in the international literature have emphasized the changing policy context for health promotion, the challenges that this presents for the field and the need to strengthen the foundations for practice. Sparks Sparks, has argued that the recent history of health promotion has seen waves of new priorities e.
The focus on activities needed to tackle these new priorities often fails to recognize that health promotion offers principles, approaches and strategies with applications across a broad range of issues. Organizational change represents one such cross-cutting area of action that is needed to build the infrastructure and capacity required to address contemporary health challenges.
The ability of the field to act strategically in this work, by drawing upon the broad body of theory and research available, will to a large degree determine the scale and sustainability of the health impacts that it can achieve. The organizational change theories examined in this article can be applied to the problem-solving function that is inherent in capacity building. The capacity building task is to influence these beliefs to facilitate progression by organizations from single-loop learning, concerned with solutions to immediate problems, to double-loop learning, which entails critical reflection on established values and practices to bring about openness to innovation and reform.
A challenge that practitioners face is identifying those organizations with preparedness for double-loop learning, which may in turn become catalysts for change within their broader sector. A common theme across the organizational change theories described above is that there needs to be a degree of elasticity in the shape and pace at which the change takes as well as within the host organization. O'Loughlin et al. The theories reviewed in this article highlight the need to take account of the uniqueness of settings, through situational analysis, which will often require an iterative process.
Steckler and Goodman Steckler and Goodman, have observed that change is a process that often takes longer than allocated funding timelines allow for. Hanni et al. The limitations associated with short-term funding include problems of staff retention and loss of corporate memory, which can delay and stifle implementation Pettigrew et al. Progression to longer funding cycles to achieve institutionalized change puts greater onus upon managers and policymakers to identify organizations that are prepared or able to embark on this change process. Organizational change theories draw attention to the sorts of questions practitioners need to ask in making assessments of readiness for change.
In addition to these key considerations, the quality of the process undertaken is critical to success, including simple, clearly defined and agreed goals, elasticity of the initiative for the organization, sufficient external environmental pressure such as market or political forces, and the existence of internal proponents for the change Douglas, ; Wildavsky, ; Pettigrew et al. In examining the reasons why organizational transformation efforts fail, Kotter Kotter, stresses that the agents of change often declare success too early.
He added that there may be political pressure on funders and funding recipients of short-term health promotion projects to declare success at the end of their funding cycle. Premature declarations of success in health promotion are problematic for all stakeholders and the discipline. This further suggests that health promotion should be viewed in a similar light to long-term institutional change. Contrary to funding objectives that are set within a political calendar, Schein Schein, points out that a health promotion programme is most likely to influence the culture of the host agency with repeated success over time.
Lewin Lewin, c would add that group experience plays a significant role in determining the behaviours, beliefs and values of its members, and subgroups within organizations often have distinct cultures Grendstad and Selle, This draws attention to the need for health promoters to seek to influence group norms as opposed to just individuals in leadership roles.